Journal of Science and Technology

1) EVALUATING THE TENSILE STRENGTH AND K/S VALUE OF COTTON FABRIC DYED WITH NATURAL EXTRACTS OF MADDER ROOT (RUBIA TINCTORUM) BY PAD-STEAM PROCESS

Authors

SHAHNAZ PARVEEN KHATTAK, SHABANA RAFIQUE, BASHIR AHMAD, TANVEER HUSSAIN, FARHAT-UN-NISASHEHZAD ,

Abstract

Cotton fabric was dyed with natural extracts of madder (RubiaTinctorum)by pad-steam process.To evaluate the effect of different dyeing auxiliaries on the tensile strength and colour properties of cotton fabric, various mordants, UV absorbers, cationizing agents and crosslinkers were utilized in the dyeing process. All the auxiliaries were applied both as pre and post padding. Metallic mordants included aluminiumsulphate, copper sulphate,ferric chloride, potassium dichromate and hydrated potassium aluminum sulphate or alum.Cationization of cotton with quaternary ammonium compound has improved the tensile strength as well as relative colour strength (K/S) of cotton dyed with this natural dye. Post-treatment of soft polyurethane emulsion managedtoretain the tensile strength of the dyed cotton. Crosslinking agents including methylolation product based on glyoxalmonourein,modified dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea and modified dihydroxy ethylene urea also made some improvements in the tensile strength of cotton.

2) NUMERICAL TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SAND FLIES (DIPTERA; PSYCHODIDAE) FROM DIRDISTRICTS, KPK PAKISTAN

Authors

KHURSHAID KHAN, SOBIA WAHID, NAZMA HABIB KHAN, FARRAH ZAIDI, BASIT RASHEED, NAHEED ALI,

Abstract

The present study investigated phylogeny of sand fly species from Lower and UpperDir districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan usingnumerical taxonomy. A total of 60 morphological characters were analyzed for 20 species using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). The results successfully differentiatedthe two genera i.e. Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the sub family Phlebotominae. HCA dendrogram further distinctly clusteredthe 5 subgenera of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larrousius, Adleirus and Symphlebotomus) and 5 subgenera of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia, Paraotmyia, Sintonus, RondanomyiaandGrossomyia). Overall, these results werein accordance to the classical taxonomy of Phlebotomine sand flies andemphasizedthe value of Phenetics as a sound and reliable method for ascertaining the phylogeny of this group.

3) METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT

Authors

AMIR NAWAZ KHAN, AMJAD ALI, ZULFIQAR ALI, SAID QASIM,

Abstract

Flood risk assessment is compound, complex and multi-disciplinary process. The real time-series or dynamic flood risk assessment needs advance technology. Even with the use of advance technologies, the high number of variables and their complex inter-relationship always delimit the accuracy of flood risk assessment. This study is focuses on developing a framework for flood risk assessment. In this framework, a mechanism of understanding of flood phenomena; enlisting of variables of elements at risk, hazard, vulnerability and capacity; a procedure of inter-variables relationship; and generalization of the method of flood risk assessment are discussed in detail. Based on study analysis, the risk of a flood hazard is dependent on four major variables; causes and intensifying factors of flood; water surface run-off (magnitude of flood); elements at risk, vulnerability and capacity; preparedness, emergency response system and mitigation of flood. 42 important variables of elements at risk, hazard, vulnerability and capacity are identified with their attribute data and nature of inter-variables interaction. Seven steps procedure of inter-variables relationship for flood risk assessment is discussed in the study. Multidisciplinary approach is the prerequisite to calculate the interactive impact of each variable. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based generalized method of flood risk assessment is developed. For flood risk assessment, GIS provides the basic platform for database

4) PREDICTING THE PRESENT GROWING STOCK FOR THE NEXT TEN YEARS KEEPING IN VIEW THE DEPENDENCY OF LOCAL COMMUNITY IN KARAKER FOREST SWAT

Authors

MUHAMMAD SADIQ KHAN , WISAL SHAH, ALIA NAZ, AHMAD HUSSAIN, SHAH MASAUD,

Abstract

Accurate, precise and updated knowledge about forest growing stock facilitates forest manager in the in the context of timber-oriented forest management. In this study, the present growing stock parameters (2014) were measured and predicted for the next ten years (2024) by keeping into consideration the annual demands of the local community. For the measurement of growing stock, a study test site namely Barikot planning unit located in the Karaker forest of district Swat of Kyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan was selected. A systematic sampling approach was adopted by covering 2.5% of the test site area for the measurement of growing stock. The dependency of the local community on forest resources was assessed with 25% sample intensity in the Karaker village with the help of a questionnaire. The results show that average present tree density, basal area and volume at 2014 was 18 trees hacˉ¹, 1.3 m², and 15.19 m³ respectively. After applying movement ratio formula for the prediction of growing stock for the next ten years (2024) the average present tree density, basal area, and volume were decreased to 14 trees hacˉ¹, 1.2 m² and 13 m³ due to annual local demand of the community. Similarly, the average tree density 31 trees hacˉ¹, basal area 2.71 m² hacˉ¹ of the regeneration at 2014 will be decreased to 23 trees hacˉ¹ and 25 m³ at 2024, respectively. The findings of the study indicated that forest resources of Karaker forest are notably declining due to the ever i

Volume No. 39

Issue No. 1