Journal of Science and Technology

1) DIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TREE SPECIES IN THE PESHAWAR CANTONMENT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKWHA, PAKISTAN
Author(s):HASSAN RAZA, ASAD ULLAH,

Abstract :

A total of 121 tree species belonging to 87 genera and 40 families were recorded from the research area. Among the 40 families 5 were Gymnosperms while the remaining 35 were Angiosperms. In Gymnosperms the maximum genera and species were of Cupressaceae, i.e. 2 genera (2.2988%) and 3 species (2.2988%), followed by Cycadaceae, 1 genus (1.1494%) and 2 species (1.6528%), followed by Araucariaceae, Ginkgoaceae, and Pinaceae had 1 genus (1.1494%) and 1 specie each (0. 0.8264%). Among angiosperms monocot were represented by 1 family, 4 genera (4.5977%) and 4 species (3.3057%), while the 34 families, 76 genera and 109 species were dicots.The leading genera is from the family Papilionaceae, 7 genera (8.0459%) and 7 species (5.7851%), followed by Caesalpinaceae, and Euphorbiaceae, with 6 genera (6.8965%) and 7 species (5.7851%), followed by Moraceae, having 5 genera (5.7851%) and thirteen species (10.7438%), followed by Myrtaceae, having 5 genera (5.7471%) and 6 species (4.9586%), which in turn followed by Palmae, with 4 genera (4.5977%) and 4 species (3.3057%), followed by Oleaceae, with 4 genera (4.5977%) and 6 species (4.9586%), followed by Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, with 3 genera (3.4482%) and 3 species (2.4793%), Mimosaceae with 3 genera (3.4482%), 9 species (7.4380%), and Rosaceae 3 genera (3.4482), 6 species (4.9586), followed by Cupressaceae, Boraginaceae, with 2 genera (2.2988%) and 3 species (2.2988%), Magnoliaceae, Meliaceae, and Sterculiaceae with 2 genera (
2) NITRATES AND OTHER MAJOR IONS CONCENTRATION IN THE GROUNDWATER OF MARDAN CITY AND ITS VICINITY
Author(s):WAJID ALI, MUHAMMAD NAFEES,

Abstract :

Ground water quality of Mardan city and about 25 villages along the Kalpani stream for human consumption, domestic and irrigation purposes has been analyzed. Various Physico-chemical parameters, major ions namely Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4 and NO3 have been determined. Standard methods were used for the assessment of Physico-chemical parameters. Na, Ca, Mg, K were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The Physico-Chemical parameters range in concentration as follows: pH 6.88-7.04, EC 289-1468µS/cm, Turbidity 1.1-127.5 NTU, TDS 157-783mg/l and DO 2.96-3.99 mg/l. Na, Ca, Mg, K, values in the study area vary as follows: 2.53-7.04, 1.10-7.04, 9.55-127.95, 19-61.8 mg/l respectively. Nitrates in most samples are above the safe drinking limits for drinking purposes and varies from 7.92-80.08 mg/l. Sulfates concentrations are well within the guidelines developed for drinking water. Based on the high levels of Nitrates in the drinking water, local populations are at risk of adverse health effects.
3) FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SHORT TERM LOAD FORECASTING
Author(s):AFTAB ALI AFRIDI, MUHAMMAD NAEEM ARBAB, MUHAMMAD IFTIKHAR KHAN, SARDAR ALI

Abstract :

Fuzzy Logic technique is used for the prediction of the load here in this work.A control system using fuzzy logic is modeled which shows that this technique is superior tothe conventional techniques when accuracy and process time is considered. To predict the load we need different load forecasting methods. In this paper a system is designed which predicts the load of every hour of the year. Analysis and examination was done on previous data, taken from Hayatabad 132 kV grid station, Peshawar, Pakistan. Temperature, Season and Time (of day/night) are inputs while output is the forecasted load of the fuzzy logic system. All of the variable (inputs and outputs) are represented by triangular membership functions. Variable season is set in such a way that it varies from month to month among 12 months of the year. Time and temperature changes during 24 hours of day/night. As temperature depends on time of day and night and it varies from time to time, so, different groups of temperature are assigned to each hour. Fuzzy rules are made according to strategize formulation to get proper forecasted load which is in accordance with the variable time.
4) IMPACT OF URBAN EVOLUTION ON LAND-USE CHANGE OF SARGODHA CITY, PAKISTAN
Author(s):SAJJAD HUSSAIN SAJJAD, SADAF HUSSAIN, SAFDAR ALI SHIRAZI, KHADIJA SHAKRULLAH, RABIA BATOOL, BASIT SAEED

Abstract :

Sargodha is the 11th largest city of Pakistan with a population size of 0.7 million. This comparatively small size city is expanding faster. The objective of this work is to the impact of rapid urbanization on land-use change of Sargodha city. For this purpose to check out the extension of the built up area of Sargodha city due to urbanization four satellite images for the years 1980, 1992, 2000 and 2013, Arc GIS software was used for mapping and analysis through land-use classification. The results showed the regular increase in built-up are of the city while vegetation cover and bare land is gradually reducing due to expansion of the city.

Volume No. 39

Issue No. 2

Vol. 39 No. 2