Journal of Law and Society

1) HOW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORY AND PRACTICE HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO TOTALITARIAN TENDENCIES
Author(s):Zia Obaid, Amir Hussain, Mehnaz Gul, Abdul Qayum Khan

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2) THE ROLE OF ISLAMIC MICROFINANCE AND ITS GROWTH PROSPECTS A CASE STUDY OF AKHUWAT
Author(s):Sajid Khan, Amir Hussain, Zia Obaid

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The rationale of this paper is to analyze the potentials of Islamic Microfinance and explore further possibilities that will complement the efforts for improvement in the living standards of low income segments of the society and elimination of poverty from the rural and neglected segments of Pakistan. For this purpose, Akhuwat model was studied as a case study and analysis of its present operations and structure was done; besides this some suggestions were made in order to further expand the operations of such kind of non-for profit organizations to others parts of the country. Thus, it will synergize the efforts of all the stakeholders such as government, civil society, local and international donors to eliminate poverty from Pakistan and to improve the living standards of the people of Pakistan.
3) RELIGIOUS-ETHICAL SOCIALIZATION OF LEARNERS: ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF GOVT. PRIMARY SCHOOLS’ MALE TEACHERS
Author(s):Dr. Mamoon Khan Khattak,Azad Ullah, Khalid Usman Khan Khattak

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The major objective of the study has been the analysis of the role of male teachers of government primary schools in religious-ethical socialization and development of learners. The district Karak of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was selected as study region due to the reason of religious homogeneity, rural nature of the area, conventional culture and having single ethnicity i.e. Pashtun tribe of one caste i.e. Khattak. The data was collected through interview schedule from respondents in the region. In this study a sample comprising size of 114 respondents was selected. The respondents were male and female learners. The research results showed that most of the teachers were providing religious socialization in addition to teaching their subjects other than religious studies, were starting teaching with Tasmiyah and motivating children for prayers. The teachers were also teaching students regarding the manners of talking to elders, parents, and strangers and in addition they were inculcating in them the value to have respect for others.
4) LOCAL DEMOCRACY, EDUCATION AND PUBLIC WELFARE CONUNDRUM: THE CASE OF PAKISTAN
Author(s):Amir Ullah Khan

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Education is spirit of democracy. Democracy is established for the welfare of the people. Democracy, education and public welfare are intimately linked together. Without education, the success of democracy and ultimately public welfare at any level of government is unimaginable. The value of education for a successful local democracy is ignored in Pakistan. The people’s representatives at the grass roots level with low or no academic background could not deliver services up to the mark and according to the expectations of their electors. Under the current Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act (LGA), 2012, the academic qualification is omitted aseligibility for local council’s candidacy. This will prove one of the hurdles in the implementation of Local Government Act and introduction of local democracy in the country.
5) SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE IN PAKISTAN: FOR THE SOCIETY BUT NOT FROM THE SOCIETY
Author(s):Tahira Jabeen

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The origin of social work and social welfare in Pakistan could be traced back to the country’s inception in 1947. However, little is known about its professional growth in the Pakistani context. This article traces the historical evolution of social work education, social policy and social welfare administration in Pakistan while highlighting the troubles that social work and social welfare faced in taking roots in the local context. It also attempts to explain this troubled growth in terms of ideological issues, colonial inheritance, low recognition of social welfare and lack of direction and progress in social work education in Pakistan. It is concluded that the recent devolution of social welfare from the centre to the provinces could be an opportunity to address those troubles and bring social welfare and social work in accordance with the needs of the people of Pakistan.
6) EVOLUTION OF SHORT STORY
Author(s):Dr. Rubina Abidin

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The Research article about short story gives brief information how it evolved. Its beginning, classification, evolution of Technique and application. The first Masters of short stories. The development of short story under new technicians (writers). Research information includes the British, American, French and Russians writers their famous short stories which lead them to fame.
7) HUMILIATION AND RETALIATION: EXPLORING HUMILIATION AS ONE OF THE MAIN CAUSES OF GLOBAL TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN
Author(s):Syed Raza Shah Gilani, Muhammad Fayaz, Ashraf Ali,Suhail Shahzad

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Humiliation features in many forms in Pakistan’s fight against global terrorism, the Pakistani police use tools and methods that undermine the human dignity of their own citizens. The level of humiliation of people detained under Pakistan’s antiterror laws has reached an unbearable limit, causing them to retaliate. Two factors shape the retaliation against anti-terror policing in Pakistan; one is the pashtuns’ strict adherence to their culture, while the other is the lack of police professionalism. The only shift in policing has been a negative one, consisting in increased violence and disrespect for human dignity
8) NARCISSISTIC TRAITS IN HARDY’S FEMALE PROTAGONISTS
Author(s):Dr. Shazia Ghulam Muhammad*, Dr. Abdus Salam Khalis

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Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) is one of the few English novelists who have created some memorable characters of iconic stature. But, unlike other novelists of that class— Dickens for instance— Hardy is distinct for the gender balance in his lot of such monumental characters. Rather, he seems to be at his best when depicting the fair sex, . His unusual fascination with women brings to limelight those hidden tendencies which cannot be traced without a deeper understanding of their psychic makeup. Underneath the complexity of their mental and emotional constitution, there are many traces of narcissistic tendencies, which become more conspicuous when their unconscious actions are being observed and interpreted with a keen eye. Besides Hardy’s major female characters, his auxiliary females also show glimpses of narcissistic attitude. This paper aims at tracing the narcissistic tendency in Sue, Tess, Bathsheba and Eustacia. Moreover, it highlights the reasons that account for their excessive self-love and the dire consequences of their narcissism
9) RICHARD II: THE UNKINGLY KING
Author(s):Atteq ur Rehman, Dr. Shazia Ghulam Mohammad

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Search for the ideal king has been a consistent preoccupation with Shakespeare and he reinforces this motif in Richard II to express his discomfort over the office of kingship. Shakespeare’s Richard II is a tale of self-exaltation and self-realization. It is a journey of a man who progresses towards nullity. Being misfit for the office of a kingship, Richard emerges as a sentimental and inconsistent character whose actions and words are in marked contrast with each other—they are hardly compatible. He keeps wavering between two extremes and is more often seized by inconstant mood-swings which can best be interpreted in terms of Jungian psychology. His inability to bridge the gap between the two causes his fall and the suffering that he endures. His tall claims crumble down before the time for their execution comes and his inherent tendency to lean on somebody for support obscures his position as an ideal king. This paper is an attempt to explore Richard’s character and examine his behavior from a Jungian point of view; hence focusing on the existence of a pronounced female voice in him. The imbalance between the conscious and the unconscious complexes leads to devastating consequences and make his downfall inevitable. He needs to integrate into his conscious attitude what he is potentially capable of.
10) DEPRESSION AMONG MARRIED WOMEN
Author(s):Muhammad Ibrar, Raazia Hassan Naqvi

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The study reported here examined views of women regarding their lives, pressures, and factors contributing to depression. Depression is an emotional state characterized by intense and unrealistic sadness and dejection. Women are more prone to depression than men because women are more likely to face a number of socio-economic risk factors for depression including racial and ethnic discrimination, lower educational and income level, segregation into low-status, and high stress because of unemployment, poor health, marital obligation, cultural disparity etc. The rate of sexual and physical abuse is also much higher than previously suspected and is a major factor in married women’s depression. The respondents for this paper have been selected on the basis of the marital period i.e. those women who have been married for from two to five years because in the early marital life women have more social and reproductive responsibilities and thus may be more prone to experience excess burdens which may contribute to depression. They are expected by family members and society to produce children during this period of biological fitness, while involved in domestic work. The respondents include only housewives
11) HONOR: AN UNCOMPROMISED FEATUREOF AFRIDI TRIBE
Author(s):Jan Alam, Syed Rashid Ali

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Honor is an important feature of tribal life, individual, family and tribal honor is associated with certain cultural traits such as bravery, loyalty, courage, protection of women and family, land border and arrogance of tribal identity. Studies of different cultures reveal that tribal societies do not compromise honor at any cost. In this context the present study is designed to investigate the association of honor with feud in Afridi tribe, for the purpose data is collected from Maliks of Dara Adam Khel, being active participants and experienced in feuds settlement. Chi square statistics is used to measure the relationship between honor and feud. The total population of the study area is 835 and a sample size of 215 is drawn purposively on the basis of criteria mentioned by Sekaran (2003). The respondents of the study show variation in age, education, income, expanses, residence, family type and size of the household. A significant relationship is found between violation of honor, protection of self respect, illicit behavior, shame, land border dispute, distribution of resources and feud. Proper distribution of resources and specific demarcation of land borders could reduce the occurrence of feuds along with t education and exposure to media can led them to a real life than ideal life
12) EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARENTING TRAJECTORIES ON YOUTH’S SOCIAL COMPETENCY
Author(s):Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Rukhsana Maroof

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The purpose of the study was to verify if parental control has any role in the development of social anxiety in adolescents. The sample of 120 individuals of age ranged 13-18 was compared on social anxiety and social introversion by parenting trajectories. The social introversion was diagnosed through Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) which is most widely researched psychological test for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings (Newmark, 1979). Based on Baumrind’s (1971 and 1997) theory of parenting, a questionnaire was constructed by the researcher to determine the three parenting trajectories. The results indicated that parenting significantly varied by type of family, X 2 (2, 120) =38.18, p<.01 and socio-economics status, (X2 (2, n=500) 33.476, p<.01). Overall result signify significant effect of parenting on social introversion, F(2, 108)=8.80, P<0.01 but do not support the gender wise variation on social introversion F(1, 108)=3.02, P>0.05. It was concluded that poor parenting strategy has a negative impact on child’s quality of social life. Overly controlling parents produce socially introverted and anxious adolescents. Further, for social competency, parenting must emphasize structure, individuality and give-and-take with love.
13) ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN A NATION-STATE SYSTEM
Author(s):Sadia Khattak, Syed Raza Shah Gilani, Suhail Shahzad,Muhammad Zubair Khan

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The present paper deeply analyse the gradual development of international law in a nation - state system. Juxtaposition with civil law , its need and development in modernized societies of the world for protecting individual rights, in a similar fashion nation- states cannot co –exist on equal footing without the existence of international law which the states have to obey for maintaining peace and security of the world. International law codified the rules of geographical limits, territorial waters, diplomatic representatives, asylum, war, treaties, which were in rudimentary form practiced by states in various geographical regions of the world. Starting with the treaty of Westphalia and culminating in the establishment of United Nations various events are studied and analyse which has led to the development of the corpus of international law, which guarantees to each state equal rights and duties in its dealing with each other without any disparity with its principle aim is to repel any attack on state’s sovereignty and avoidance of war.
14) SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENDER STEREOTYPING IN MIDDLE LEVEL SCHOOLING AND ITS IMPACT ON GENDER ROLE FORMATION
Author(s):Sajjad Hussain, Dr. Arab Naz, Naqeeb Shah

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Gender stereotypes play an important role in socialization and gender role formation in educational spheres. School environment, class room, teachers, class room environment, text books and curriculum present and portray the masculine ideology. School curriculum and text books are perpetuating a masculine and dominant trait which decreases female portrayal that affect their potentialities and capabilities at school level and even their empowerment in the larger social structure. Similarly, teachers’ attitude and behavior in formation of students’ personality plays a pivotal role during the class and curriculum development. The current study thus investigates that how gender stereotypes developed during classroom, teaching of subjects, curriculum and text books. The data has been collected from 100 students of two primary and two middle schools selected through purposive sampling technique using structured interview schedule. The data is further analyzed through SPSS while both descriptive and inferential statisticsare utilized for discussion over the results. The study thus concludes that school text, curriculum, attitude of the teachers towards male students in the class are the major reasons promoting gender stereotypeswhich affectwomen’s status and empowerment.
15) VIEWS AND OPINION OF RURAL WOMEN OF DISTRICT MULTAN ABOUT THEIR INVOLVEMENT AND PARTICIPATION IN FAMILY DECISIONS: A MEANS FOR WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY
Author(s):Raazia Hassan Naqvi, Muhammad Ibrar, Tahira Jabeen

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It is the need of the time that females must also be provided with opportunities to participate in decision making, so that the pace of social development of the country could be accelerated. But unfortunately in our society women has not yet been given opportunities to make independent decisions in any important issue. She has to consult men and seek his consent and obey his command before taking any action. The study discussed that men are dominant in decisions over household and the other family members especially females. Men do not even consider the view point of the women before taking any family decisions. This may be because men are mostly earning members of the society or because they have more chances of academic qualifications so that they impose their decisions in all works on their women.
16) ENTREPRENEURS IN URBAN INFORMAL SECTOR OF KHYBER PUKHTOONKHWA PROVINCE: THE CHARACTERISTICS
Author(s):Dr. Ghazala Yasmeen

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As a matter of fact entrepreneurs play vital role in the success of an enterprise. Therefore this study analyzes various characteristics of micro entrepreneurs in the urban informal sector of KP taking Peshawar urban informal market as a case study. The empirical results suggest that of the total micro entrepreneurs investigated, 18% fell under 25 years of age and 82% above 25 years; on average, an entrepreneur had 40 years of age. Only 15% had family experience of the same business, suggesting that majority of the entrepreneurs selected their businesses on their own choices. On average, entrepreneurs had 12 years of experience of running the businesses; the experiences ranged between 5 to 19 years. Present businesses were established between 2 to 19 years, with a mean value of 7.25 years. On the whole, 100% of the entrepreneurs were educated; however, the average education level was found 8 years. Only 8% had formal training of the same business; 89% got informal training of various kinds, leaving 3% without any type of training.
17) HANDLING LEGAL EDUCATION AS PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
Author(s):Anees Iqbal, Inayat Ullah Ghawas

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Volume No. 44

Issue No. 63

January 2013