Journal of Law and Society

1) AFGHANISTAN: ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE UNDER TALIBAN (1996 – 2001)
Author(s):Abdul Latif, Fayyaz Ur Rehman, Inayat Ullah Khan

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2) CHILD PROTECTION, CHILDREN’S RIGHT TO PROTECTION AND THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
Author(s):Tahira Jabeen

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Child protection, around the world, has been gradually shifting from its traditional welfare orientation to rights oriented policy and practice. The rights approach to child protection is guided by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. This article argues that the concept of child protection as envisaged in the Convention and as interpreted in current practice is narrow in scope and limits children’s protection entitlements. Child protection conceptualised in a true rights ideology offers not only protection against actual incidences of abuse, exploitation and harm as provided in the Convention, but also intends fulfilment of children’s rights to live, grow, develop and to participate in protection of their all rights.
3) SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN AMONG PAKHTUNS OF MALAKAND
Author(s):Sajjad Hussain, Basharat Hussain, Kaleem Shah, Sumera Farid

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Divorce rate in Pakistan has considerably spiraled up during the last few decades. Divorce, in the past was uncommon, mainly due to the stigma attached to it. Majority of men and women specifically, preferred to live an unhappy life and not remarrying, for the sake of the socialization and rearing of their children. The issue of divorce, nonetheless, has become a social evil, which not only affects marital life of a couple but also places a heavy toll on the upbringing of children and eventually on a society as a whole. This study is an attempt to find out the socio-economic and psychological impacts of divorce on their children’s lives. This study was conducted in Chakdara village of district Dir (Lower) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 100 respondents were selected through purposive sampling technique and data was collected with the help of semi-structured interview schedule from those children whose parents have been separated due to divorce. A pure quantitative method has been adopted and data has been analyzed with the help of SPSS version 16. The results explicate that divorce produces a variety of socio-economic and psychological impacts on children. However, it is recommended that avoiding divorce through mutual consensus of both parties and Islamic teaching will reduce the curse of divorce and its adverse impacts on children. For a healthy nation, the proper upbringing of children under the care, protection, supervision, guidance in a
4) THE MEDIA’S PROFANITY AND ITS IMPACTS ON YOUTH ACADEMIC AND BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN
Author(s):Arab Naz, Waseem Khan, Umar Daraz, Qaisar Khan

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Media is the most powerful mean of delivering information and communication in today’s modern world. The current study has been framed to look into the various consequences of media upon the academic performance and behavioral development of youth in Pakistan. The data has been collected from 100 youth of grade 12 and above selected through snowball sampling technique in selected higher secondary schools and various departments of University of Malakand at Chakdara town Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The study has been approached through both qualitative and quantitative procedures and the data is obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The research has been framed in a theoretical discussion mostly related to media impacts and antisocial behavior in youth and adolescents. The study shows that there are serious consequences of media upon youth in their academic achievement, behavioral modification and personally disorders. The study thus suggests that media shall follow the normative structure, values and religious order and there shall be proper policy for controlling of media relations.
5) STATUS OF MINORITIES UNDER LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN: THEORY & PRACTICE
Author(s):Amir Ullah Khan

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The ideological foundation of Pakistan is rooted in democratic values where people belong from all religions, castes, races, ethnicities, and cultures. The framers of Constitution have incorporated the provision for the protection of minority in the multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-racial, multi-religious, and multi-ethnic society of Pakistan. However, the structural and functional flaws in the local government system introduced under Local Government Ordinance, 2001 does not ensure complete safeguard of minorities’ rights. This needs to review the Local Government Act. The prime objectives of this paper to highlight the position of minorities in the decision making process at the grass roots level; to devise ways & means to protect their justifiable rights; to enable them equal citizens of Pakistan; to unearth the facts that how much the rights of minorities in Pakistan have been guaranteed; and to ensure the implementation of Constitutional provisions of 1973 of Pakistan related with minorities in letter & spirit.
6) PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN DRUG ADDICTS
Author(s):Erum Irshad, Misbah Karamat

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The present study was designed to identify “Psychological Wellbeing, Environmental Mastery and Self-acceptance in Drug Addicts.” It was hypothesized that drug addicts will have low level of psychological well-being as compared to non drug addicts. The sample consisted of 80 males (N=80) including an equal number of drug addicts (n=40) and non-addicts (n=40). Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale was used for the collection of information from both groups. T test was applied to find out the differences on the level of psychological well-being among drug addicts and non drug addicts. Results confirmed that there is low psychological well-being in drug addicts (t=7.807, **p<0.01,), there is low environmental mastery among them (t=5.377, **p<0.01), and it was also evident that (t=10.017, **p<0.01) drug addicts have low level of self acceptance as compared to non drug addicts.
7) WEEKDAY AND WEEKEND EFFECT ON MOOD OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Author(s):Laila Raza, Saima Arzeen, Hareera Zeb

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The present study aimed at to investigate the weekend and weekday effect on mood of university students. The objective of the study was to examine the gender differences in mood of university students on weekend and weekday. For this purpose a sample of 60 students with an age range from 18 to 22 years was selected from the Department of Psychology (30 male and 30 female). For data collection Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANS Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegan, A. 1988), a 20 item scale using 5 point scale was used. Alpha coefficient reliability of the scale was internally consistent (0.719) and thus reliable for the present study. It was hypothesized that students mood will be more positive on Friday as compared to Monday. The test was completed on Friday (represented weekend) and on Monday (represented weekday). The results of the study indicated that the participants of the study scored higher on positive affect on Friday as compared to Monday. Moreover the gender differences were also found among the participants. Female showed positive mood on Monday as compared to male and male scored higher on positive affect on Friday as compared to female. The findings of the study are discussed in terms of its implications in various sectors; in education, health and consumer behavior.
9) LEGAL SYSTEM OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Author(s):Sobia Bashir, Amen Imran

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10) IMPACT OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Author(s):Amen Imran, Sobia Bashir, Syed Azwar Shah, Sundus Wasai, Saddam Umairsami

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In a revolutionary competitive market structure, human resources are one of the significant sources of competitive advantage. Strategic human resource management help to design more improved practices keeping in mind the corporate particular needs, hence provides competitive edge over competitors. Furthermore, it deals with the generation of a relationship among the whole strategic goals of the organization and the human resource policies and its application. This study on hand concludes the positive influence of strategic human resource management practices on firm productivity and recommends that this positive relation will allow the HR managers to develop policies that cause better operational outcomes, to accomplish greater firm performance. In this study, it has been explored that recruitment and selection process, training and development and performance appraisal system, plays a vital role in increasing the firm performance and are considered to be an important source of competitive advantage. Through relevant evidences from this research work, that firm efficiency is positively influenced by the strategic human resource management practices, the conclusion is drawn that the way business manages its human resources practices has a distinct impact on organization’s performance.
11) THE IMPACT OF EDUCATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN PAKISTAN
Author(s):Imad Ullah, Muhammad Naeem

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12) ANTHROPOLOGICAL INTEREST IN EDUCATION SYSTEM: EVIDENCE FROM HADITH (BUKHARI SHARIF)
Author(s):Jamil Ahmad Chitrali, Sumera Farid, Ali Askar, Robina Abideen, Abdul Manan

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13) SOCIO-POLITICAL ASSESSMENT OF ANGLOAFGHAN TREATIES IN 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY: AGE OF BRITISH IMPERIALISM
Author(s):Jamil Ahmad Chitrali, Zahid Ali, Salman Bangash, Inayat Ullah Khan, Abdul Manan

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The paper provides a brief introduction to a few important Agreements negotiated between British Rulers in India and Afghan Dynasties, and discusses the British imperialists' motives behind these agreements. The nature of analysis is descriptive and data used is based on re-analyzing the literature and archives available on the topic. Library method is used with desk research pattern. The period is known as Age of British Imperialism. Afghanistan has experienced on its soil the presence of all of the super powers of the world, albeit directly or indirectly, in the last three centuries ranging from Iran, France, Germany, Russia and Great Britain to present day America. Writings on Imperialism, either Russian or British, could not be summed up unless and until they include the historical events that happened in or about Afghanistan. This paper, which will cover an important aspect of British imperialism, assesses its treaties with Afghanistan. The history of Afghanistan, especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, is full of such agreements with world powers including the many treaties they entered into with the British royal powers of India. This paper will focus on a few strategically important and historically trend-setting treaties of Afghanistan and British India signed from 1803 to 1921 A.D.
14) OFF THE STREET CHILDREN: ITS SOCIOECONOMIC DIMENSIONS IN PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
Author(s):Muhammad Jahanzeb Khan, Niaz Muhammad, Basharat Hussain, Imran

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The aim of this research paper is to pin point the different socioeconomic attributes and factors associated with of the street children in Peshawar. Due to a large number of street children availability, the universe of the study was restricted to Peshawar Bus Terminal, Fruit Market and Bilal Town streets. Data was collected from 70 from of the street children through interview schedule. The major findings of the study indicate that poverty, unemployment, polygamous marriages, Afghans migration, large family size and critical economic status of the fathers were the main causes behind becoming as street children. The respondents were mainly scavengers in the age group of 9-12 years; most of them had no basic education, sleep at shelter home (NGO), and with their friends. They worked for 5-7 hours, had earning from Rs. 20-50 daily. They had 5-7 siblings, 2-3 earning members in the family and 7-9 dependents members. They were aware of sexual abuse and many of them admitted their sexual exploitation. They were exposed to various kinds of drugs which resulted in serious diseases like skin diseases. The study recommends that free and compulsory education should be practically provided to all children irrespective of gender discrimination. The study also suggests that the state needs to evolve sustainable policy concentrating on poverty reduction, to financially assist the children's families, and by doing so benefited families would stop sending their children
15) IRAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM AND THE WORLD
Author(s):Inayat Ullah Khan, Sobia Bashir, Abdul Latif

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16) LORD CURZON AND THE CREATION OF THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE (1901): AN APPRAISAL
Author(s):Salman Bangash, Basharat Hussain, Javed Iqbal, Jamil Ahmad Chitrali

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17) IMPORTANCE OF SCHEDULING ADVANCE DIRECTIVES FOR CANCER PATIENTS
Author(s):Syeda Kaniz Fatima Haider, Salma Naz Gul, Nabahat Ashar

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After the diseases like heart attack and tumors, cancer is the third major cause of death worldwide. Advance directive a custom part of typical medical directives; it is the practice of planning for potential health check and advice in the situations where people suffering from this disease cannot present their own verdict. Advance directive is advisable to be conducted in the presence of authoritative person who can make decision on behalf of the subject. It would be easy to comprehend the concept of advance directives in sequential steps. This process includes suitable presentation of the topic in its foreword, planned deliberations, citations of preferences, intervallic assessment ,revision of advance directives and practical implementation of the desires as desired by the patient. Sequential steps of advance directives can be incorporated into schedule medical consultation of doctors and rest of the members of health directives lineup . Advance directives cultivates individual decision in the interest of cancer long suffering, attentiveness to be kept as alternative along with successful collaboration among experts.
18) SOCIETY AND EDUCATION; AS ENVISIONED BY GULEN
Author(s):Raazia Hassan Naqvi, Muhammad Ibrar

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“Do not stop doing good, even to those who have harmed you. Rather, treat them with humanity and nobility, for harming someone is brutish behavior. Returning evil with evil implies a deficiency in character, returning good for evil is nobility, says Fethullah Gulen in his book “Pearls of Wisdom.” Gulen has presented an ideal society through the Hizmet Movement, where he advocated peace, tolerance, brotherhood, respect of other’s thoughts, human rights etc. all elements of Islam but he also motivates Muslims to adapt to the modern world to cope with its challenges. He has love for humanity, ethnicity and has promoted inter-cultural dialogues between people of different religions and faiths. Gulen has taken the most effective tool for the propagation of his thoughts that is through education. His teachings are promoting ethical and modern structure of Islam. The institutions run by Gulen do not preach about Gulen’s teachings and no special courses are offered based on Gulen’s teachings, the teachers inspired by Gulen are the role model and are the soul tool for transforming the pupils. These institutions offer Islam and science primarily and have brought tremendous successes for their students. This brings hope to Muslim people around the world that Islam does not stand in the way of their progress and development. The Gulen Movement can also do much in Pakistan by promoting a softer version of Islam. The Pak-Turk schools and other collabora

Volume No. 42

Issue No. 59 & 60 January & July 2012

January & July 2012