Central Asia

1) Construction of Dams on Kabul River and its Socio-Economic Implications for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Author(s):Shabir Ahmad Khan & Mohammad Nafees

Abstract :

Pakistan and Afghanistan have planned various developmental projects on Kabul River System (KRS) with the intention to overcome water and energy deficiencies irrespective of ecological problems faced by Kabul River and socio economic complexities of each other. The objectives of this paper are to know the present uses of Kabul River and future potential of the river for construction of dams. Studies conducted during 1990-2010 revealed that the Kabul River has already been used for hydro power generation and irrigation by both the riparian countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Undoubtedly, it has a major role in uplifting the socio-economic condition of the farmer communities. But this heavy extraction of water has also posed some negative impacts on the river’s ecology and surrounding community such as fishermen and people attached with tourism. Therefore, further construction of dams need technical hands with the idea not to bring further distortion in the environment. As per analysis of five years flow data recorded at Nowshera station, the flow rate during July-August rose above 1000 M3 /Sec. Water received during this period of time can be termed as extra and can be allocated for storage. If Afghanistan constructs more dams on Kabul River or on its tributaries, it will have negative impacts on Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province. Three fertile districts, Peshawar, Nowshera and Charsada will be suffered in terms of productivity and crop yields. The diversion
2) US-India Strategic Alliance and CPEC "The Game Changer': Prospects for Pakistan and Russian Cooperation
Author(s):Adam Saud & Kinza Arif

Abstract :

South Asia equally occupies the title of the most sensitive region of the world. Regional politics is heavily governed under the principle of Balance of Power, where a continuous struggle to attain power persists amidst all the actors to ensure their state survival. A pragmatic shift in the regional politics has led to emergence of new alliances as Pak-Russian interests have coincided. Though Russia enjoys a strategic relationship with India, the Indo-U.S. nexus paves the way for Russia to extend its relations with Pakistan. Post 9/11 Russia has realized the strategic importance of Pakistan as a pivotal player towards achieving regional peace and security. The dwindling U.S. relations with Pakistan dictates latter’s policies to adopt enhanced bilateral relations with Russia and China. The extension of PakRussian relations will provide the latter to maintain its control over the Central Asian states, and provides Moscow with the wild card to counter Indian strategic tilt towards the U.S. CPEC initiative serves as a pivotal forum to further strengthen Pak-Russian relations and aid in development of mutual trust and cooperation. Creating a win-win situation for both actors to pursue and extend their strategic interests. This paper provides a qualitative analysis of the regional implications which are subtly governing the newly established relations while attempting to address the regional attributes which influence the newly established relations between Pak
3) Interdependency: A case of Sino-Afghan Relations (2002-2016)
Author(s):Sohail Ahmad & Jallat Khan Zahid Fayaz

Abstract :

In recent past, Sino-Afghan relations have taken a new phase of collaboration and inter-dependency to work jointly to advance their common geo-strategic and geo-economic goals. Being an international power on the global chessboard, China does have a great role in the regional geopolitical setting to ensure peace and tranquility in the region on the one hand and prioritize its own interests on the other. Afghanistan, being an epicenter of the region, draws a special attention of neighboring countries especially China to address threat perception emanating from cross-border terrorism, drug trafficking and promoting insurgency in its region of Xinjiang. This paper attempts to analyze the scope of bilateral collaboration between China and Afghanistan. The paper also intends to ascertain whether Afghan leadership will be wise enough to use Chinese assistance as a trap card to utilize their geographic setting in such a manner in which both Chinese and Afghans can benefit and also to ensure their cooperation for longer period of time for peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan.
4) Afghanistan Imbroglio: Impact on Central Asian States
Author(s):Sajid Iqbal & Sarwat Rauf

Abstract :

This paper attempts to find the dynamism in Afghanistan’s relations with Central Asian states. It is explained that prosperity without security is not possible and ongoing imbroglio in Afghanistan is directly affecting Central Asian states. The Central Asian states are surrounded by China, Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran. These states (with significant influence of India and Turkey) are the key regional players and their socioeconomic and political interests are converged on various issues. The political conditions in Afghanistan would directly impact the interests of Central Asian states. Drug trafficking, illegal migration, religious extremism, a ramified corrupt network, porous border and terrorism are subverting peace in Afghanistan and its spillover effects are dangerous for Central Asian states. The military and security situation in Afghanistan has a direct impact on the production and transport of energy from Central Asia to the rest of the world. The response of the regional organizations, particularly the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), with certain commonalities, towards these issues often contrasts with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This paper focuses on the efforts of major powers (Russia, China, and the US) along with neighbouring countries in the peacebuilding in Afghanistan to avoid its spillover effects over Central Asian states.
5) An Analysis of Conflict between Pashto and Dari Languages of Afghanistan
Author(s):Muhammad Ali Dinakhel

Abstract :

Since the establishment of Afghanistan State, Dari (dialect of Persian) has remained its dominant and official language. However, in twentieth century, some measures were taken for the development of Pashto language followed by declaration of Pashto as official language in 1936. For the first time a dialect of Persian spoken in Afghanistan was officially renamed as Dari in the 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan. In this constitution as well as in the current constitution of 2004 both of the languages were declared as official languages. Since the emergence of Pashto as official language, a rivalry and linguistic divergence created between the two languages and their respective ethnic groups. As a result of this rivalry an ethnic and linguistic consciousness emerged which led to discussions about language planning policies. This research article discovers historical evolution and reasons for this linguistic divergence and its implications on future nation building in Afghanistan. It also explores historical development of status, planning and policies regarding these two languages for better understanding of the linguistic divergence and rivalry. Furthermore, the study proposes options for accommodation of different languages through cultural harmonization and multiculturalism.
6) The Effects of Malakism on Electoral Behaviour in Bajaur, Tribal District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Author(s):Farmanullha & Jamal Uddin

Abstract :

Malakism is a known phenomenon in Pakhtun society in general and the tribal districts in particular. The Malaks, in tribal districts are exercising a dominant status in social, political and economic spheres. In elections, Malaks are too instrumental in moulding electoral preferences of the voters in favour of their electoral candidates. The threat of dislodge from the house, the creation of problematic situation for the subordinates, the provision of jobs and development are some of the effective tools that are applied by the Malaks for obtaining the electoral support of the voters. The present study tends to explore that how Malaks happen to be the major determinant of electoral behaviour in tribal districts in general and Bajaur in particular. Data analysis have been made via descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentage, valid percentage and Cumulative Percent and inferential statistics comprising of regression, coefficient of regression and ANOVA.
7) Concepyualizing Nuclear Security of Pakistan: A Response to International Regimes
Author(s):Musarat Amin & Rizwan Naseer

Abstract :

Terrorism is a challenge to international peace and stability, but nuclear terrorism risks the existence of entire world. Nuclear safety poses another challenge that remained priority on the agenda in all nuclear security summits (NSS). Nuclear Security Summit established a forum for cooperation among international nuclear actors. International mainstream media often created hype of nuclear insecurity in the wake of terrorism in Pakistan. Pakistan’s proactive nuclear diplomacy at all Nuclear Security Summits (2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016) not only highlighted Pakistan’s concerted efforts to safeguard nukes but also extended support to those who are struggling to improve nuclear security. International Atomic Energy Agency’s acknowledgement of Pakistan’s ramped up efforts increased its credibility and enlists Pakistan as a potential candidate for membership of Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). These NSS provided a platform of cooperation to nuclear actors and ensured relative nuclear security. This paper analyses the institutional response of Pakistan’s nuclear security to international concerns and highlights measures to beef up security of nuclear assets. It also dispels any chance of nuclear terrorism in Pakistan. It also argues to dispel misapprehensions about Pakistan’s strategic assets.
8) The Language of War: Loss Gain Metaphorical Framing in the Context of the War on Terror
Author(s):Shuja Ahmad

Abstract :

War has always been an important issue in philosophy. Very many philosophers have discussed different aspects of war. This paper, using Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) as theoretical frame work, focuses on the language of war. It discusses ‘War is Business’ metaphor that ensues Loss Gain framing - informing public/audience that going into conflict/war is gain and not going is loss; winning war is gain and losing war is loss; status quo is risk; enemy’s loss is our gain and our gain is enemy’s loss. Moreover, helping the refugees and providing aid to the victims is narrated as, Corporate Social Responsibility. Loss gain framing, like other framings, blocks criticism on the pretext that critics don’t want our gain and if we accept their arguments then there would be losses. This paper explains the way loss gain framing works in times of war and conflict. It focuses on the way this framing was instrumental in the context of the War on Terror in Afghanistan. The argument is: in the context of 9/11 leaders of both sides, especially Tony Blair, defined and framed the War on Terror in a way that it appeared that not going into war would entail great future losses.
9) Uses and Abuses of FM Radios by Militants in Former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA), Pakistan
Author(s):Yousaf Ali & Ijaz Khan

Abstract :

This research deals with the uses of abuses of FM radios in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and the recently merged districts – former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) during the period ranging from 2003 to 2018. Radio is the most effective mean of mass communication. The rapid increase in FM radios and its cheap and easy operation was a source of attraction for many to disseminate their message. The use of FM radio has been on the rapid rise for the last nearly two decades, both for propaganda, political and commercial purposes. The government, private entities and some anti-state elements have made effective use of this media tool. This study analyses the role of government and non-state actors’ launched FM radio stations, which include both the legal stations and the pirated or illegal ones. The objectives and functions of Government run FM radio have been discussed. The use of the FM radio for promotion of Islamic teachings has also been thoroughly looked into. Its use by different militant outfits for propagating their message has also been covered. The commercial use of the tool by private entities has also been taken into account.
10) How Experience Becomes a Journalistic Asset? A Local Reporter's Perspective to Understand Conflict-Sensitive Reporting in the Troubled Pashtun Belt of Pakistan
Author(s):Irfan Ashraf

Abstract :

In a previous paper (in Press), we adopted a critical theory approach to argue that the model of objective journalism, while laying emphasis on neutrality and detachment, disconnects local reporters, in conflict scenario, from feeling the pain of their own ethnic community. Therefore, the objectivity model was found too simple to help ethnic Pashtun journalists know occupational intricacies of conflict-sensitive reporting in Pakistan’s northwestern terror-hit areas, a site for the U.S-led so-called global war on terror. Using phenomenology as a method, I take this argument further and offer my shared journalistic experience as a resource to establish that objectivity obfuscates power politics involved in text production while promoting an ahistorical culture. This is done through objectifying the local reporter’s relationship with the troubled site of occurrence (field), a relationship in which a reporter is made insensitive to his own presence as an ethnic body standing at a highly militarized political site to get him focused more on looking at reality through the detached lens of neutral observer. Objectify here means that they look at reality not from the human perspective but usually prefer to project aspects of reality using objectivity as a measuring rod to access facts. Using the commercial framework of objective reporting might give a text (news story) an economically-desired impersonal form. But the urge for neutrality and impartiality neither
11) The Application of International Human Rights Law to the Issues Faced by the Refugees in General and Afghans in Particular
Author(s):Muhammad Zubair

Abstract :

The article considers human rights application as an alternative to such situations where a nation-state is not a signatory to the international refugees’ law nor has any domestic arrangements for the refugees on their soil due to which they are living in a legal limbo. While the initial perception about human rights and refugee law was that both of these areas are divisions of public international law completely separate from one another, but now it is well established that the interaction between these is multifaceted as demonstrated at nation-state level and academic writings. Whether refugees’ rights are human rights? A query like this may be a challenging task in contemporary environment, when there are frequent incidents of refugees’ mistreatments on the pretext of restrictive policies related to them. António Guterres, has observed that “the human rights agenda out of which United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was born, and on which we depend, is increasingly coming under strain. The international economic crisis brought with it a populist wave of anti-foreigner sentiment, albeit often couched in terms of national sovereignty and national security Against such an environment, reviewing the relationships in-between human rights and refugee laws is vital in-order to categorize the complete variety of nation-states’ duties and thus report their practices towards asylum seekers and refugees.

Volume No. 83

Issue No. Winter 2018

Winter 2018