PUTAJ Humanities and Social Science

1) Integral of Derrida’s Différance- ‘To Differ’: A Postmodernist Analysis of Michael Ondaatje’s Selected Poems
Author(s):Shahbaz Afzal Bezar, Sajid Ali & Mahmood Ahmad Azhar

Abstract :

This paper explores the presence of one of the integrals of Derrida’s différance i.e. ‘to differ’ or dissolving the boundaries from the theme and textual techniques of Michael Ondaatje’s selected poems. This integral has been investigated through textual analysis in the paradigm of postmodernism especially différance. Postmodernism is a model of rupture. The present research is qualitative in its nature which tries to figure out how Ondaatje uses this integral to dissolve the boundaries between husband and wife, man and nature, present and primitivism, east (Ceylon) and U.S (Connecticut), prose and poetry in his poetry. Boundaries are also dissolved through postmodern textual techniques i.e. parody, pastiche, intertextuality, non-linear structure and multi-voiced narrative.
2) Wordsworth’s The Prelude Book 1: Some Imagist Themes
Author(s):Humaira Aslam

Abstract :

The exponents of imagism claim to be objective in their poetry, creating images that are detached and free from sentimentality. They do not agree with the narrative "I" that is a connection between the poet and the reader. Nevertheless, with all the impersonal attitude and objectivity that imagist poets proclaim, imagination and Nature both play a vital part in the imagists' poetry, as in Wordsworth's poetry. Similarly, Wordsworth's poetry too, is focused and complex as the imagist poetry.
3) Marxism in Moth Smoke: A Macro Analysis of Pakistani Society
Author(s):Samina Azad

Abstract :

The story of suppressed and subjugated finds voices for advocating its cause in the ideology of Marxism which pleads their case by rejecting and refusing the power, control and might of bourgeoisie in the economic, political and capitalistic sphere, granting the proletariats a sound situation for survival-and-stepping-forward in a classless society. The study aims at exploring the socio-political and economic conditions as portrayed by Mohsin Hamid in his novel Moth Smoke. It goes on to explore the reactions of the characters and the possible vision preached by Mohsin Hamid in his work. Marxism serves as the theoretical framework and Fairclough’s approach of Socio-cultural practice marks the method of the study. The findings of the paper suggest that socio-economic and political system strengthens the bourgeoisie and breaks the back of the desolate and distressed. The solution lies in toning down the intense accumulation of power and control in the centre and restoring balance by incorporating periphery in the socio-political and economic centre on equal footing.
4) Gender Schema in Pakistani TV Commercial Ads
Author(s):Mohammad Iqbal, Amjad Ali, Riaz-ud-Din & Syed Shujaat Ali

Abstract :

Majority of Pakistani TV commercials debase women and objectify them as intellectually retard oriented in lookism. The commodification of women invalidates the modus operandi of modern feminism which appreciates career-pursuing women. This trivialization of women is in cognizance with the gender schema theory which proposes that people have implicit cognitive structures that provide them with genderized expectancies when processing information. Our paper examines women identity in Pakistani TV advertisements and premises that they follow gender schema theory. The study contends that the advertising agency commercializes the patriarchal orientation of the society and propagates gender-based roles for the individuals. The study attempts to show that advertising industry is, at heart, only a reflection of societal values, hopes and expectations.
5) Victorian Patriarchal Politics: The Rise and Fall of the Legend of True Womanhood
Author(s):Fasih ur Rehman & Yasir Hussain

Abstract :

Victorian society laid much emphasis on the moral righteousness of women and therefore expected of woman to be an Ideal Woman. The Victorians made proper arrangements of education and tutoring to inculcate the four cardinal virtues of True Womanhood in Victorian woman. As indicated by Barbara Welter (1966), the four cardinal virtues, which a lady was required to have keeping in mind the end goal to become a True Woman, were “piety”, “purity”, “submissiveness” and “domesticity”. The paper contests the idea of the True Womanhood through an array of instances from literature, religion, and socio-political practices. It also explores Victorian patriarchal politics of the legend of True Womanhood to reveal the reason for the rise and fall of the “Ideal”.
6) The Role of Female Writers in the Promotion of Popular Literature in Urdu
Author(s):Faiza Bashir, Almas Khanum & Sadia Bashir

Abstract :

By the end of Nineteenth Century there was no well renowned female writer in the world of Urdu Literature, only few female writers were in the picture, but not active enough to be counted as an asset for the literature. However, at the beginning of the Twentieth Century, female writers became active, they stared their literary life by writing novels in Urdu. Generally the nature of women writing was social and domestic. From the beginning of progressive movement, signs of change also appeared in the Urdu Literature and women Authors were also affected by this change. The difference between pure literature and popular literature became very clear by the mid of Twentieth century. Popular literature is growing fast in Urdu since 1950 and women have played an effective/ vital role in the promotion of this popular literature. The objectives of my study are to highlight the role of female writers in the promotion/ development of popular literature, to analyse the trends developed by popular literature and to make a critical analysis of changes being faced by popular literature between the twentieth and twenty first centuries. Furthermore, I also try to locate the basic factors involved in the development of popular literature in Urdu.
7) A Critical Analysis of Social Capital Building in the Development of Education in Pakistan
Author(s):Aminullah, Javaria Raza & Niaz Ahmad

Abstract :

Social capital theorists have struggled for establishing a practicable perspective in policy and development realm. No doubt, the concept has proved its potential in offering promising prospects; however, its manipulation for personal interest may hinder the way of positive outcomes. Exploring the issue, effort is being made in this paper to highlight a dark side of social capital which was detrimental to school community links in Pakistan. The study exhibits that principals use personal- in the shape of links with local political elites- and institutional social capital- having good relations with higher authorities- for making corruption and maintaining autocratic atmosphere of their schools. The social networks serve as an umbrella for school administrators from any possible legal action of parents. In this way, few individuals exchange illegal benefits at the expense of desired social capital building through PTCs. Thus the dilemma of parents/community involvement in schools is marred by the perverse use of individual and institutional social capital for meager personal interest.
8) Patriarchal Politics: Factors Limiting Women’s Participation in Local Government in Pakistan
Author(s):Nasira Nasreen, Noor Sanauddin & Seema Gul

Abstract :

Active participation of women in political process is one of the key indicators of women empowerment. It has been observed that despite the 33% quota reserved for women in the local government system in Pakistan, and despite the fact that a large number of women were elected as councillors during the local bodies elections held in 2002, no substantial results were recorded with regard to women’s political empowerment in the country. Using qualitative methods, this study was conducted with elected women councillors in order to explore the way women entered politics, their experiences as councillors, and the hurdles they encountered during their tenure at the union council level. The article explores a number of institutional and cultural hurdles in the way of women’s political empowerment. For examples, most of the women elected through reserved quotas were usually uneducated and came from very low socio-economic backgrounds. On the other hand, some of them belonged to established political/feudal families: they were the wives, daughters and sisters or sisters-in-law of those who are already stakeholders in the power structure of the state. The representation of both kinds of these elected women is merely numerical, leaving no real impact on the lives of ordinary women.
9) Training Needs Analysis on Leadership Skills of University Librarians in Pakistan
Author(s):Asad Khan & Hamida Begum

Abstract :

Training facilitates learning of the required innovative skills that further assist workers to grow professionally. However, who needs training is an important question for organizational authorities. The objective of this study is to empirically analyze the training needs on leadership innovative skills of Pakistani university librarians. A quantitative study was conducted on a randomly drawn sample of Pakistani university librarians. A self-administered questionnaire, measuring the current and needed levels of leadership skills was used for data collection. The significance of hypothesized relationship was tested through paired sample t-test and found significant. Additionally, descriptive statistical analysis revealed that the current leadership skills of Pakistani university librarians have more than fifty percent of deficit, less than fifty percent of surplus and twenty percent of job best fit. The findings have several implications for academic librarians, such as designing of training programs, curriculum development, performance evaluation and exploring causes of under and over utilization of leadership skills. Findings are also significant for those organizations that are interested to enhance workers' leadership skills. The present study is the first attempt that explored dimension-wise need of training on librarians' leadership skills. The results are valuable to manage deficit and surplus in leadership skills that ultimately ensure job best fit and perhaps facilit
10) Do Socio-Economic Dynamics Matter in Intellectual Disability among Children?
Author(s):Shakeel Ahmed, Noor Sanauddin & Imran Ahmed Sajjid

Abstract :

This mixed method research explores the socio-economic dynamics contributing to intellectual disability (ID) among children. It is generally believed that ID in children is caused by genetic, biological and psychological factors. Nonetheless, socio-economic dynamics such as financial status, marriage pattern, family structure, locality of residence also contribute to the development of ID among children. A mixed method research designed was carried out to find out the socio-economic dynamics of intellectual disability. A total of 58 parents whose children were admitted in special education centers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa took part in this study. Out of this total, 10 in-depth-interviews were conducted with parents having children with ID. Similarly, 4 Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were carried out with parents and caregivers of intellectually disabled children. A questionnaire was also distributed among 20 parents for further exploration. It was found that the number of male children with ID was higher as compared to female children with ID in the special education schools/centers. This higher number of male children was due to the patriarchal structure of society where male are preferred over female in all matters of life. Similarly, endogamous marriages, birth of child at home, low financial background of parents, lack of awareness, cultural hurdles and patriarchal structure of the family were the major causes of ID in the research area.
11) Effect of Disengagement on Organizational Commitment among Universities Academicians: An Empirical Study
Author(s):Faisal Khan, Qaiser Khan, Arab Naz & Amran Md Rasli

Abstract :

Burnout is an increasing phenomenon in the field of research as well as in practical life. Furthermore, burnout may express itself in a different way and affect academicians in different working places. Burnout has been studied in the services and health sector, but less attention has given to the education sector. Therefore, the current study identifies the relationship between disengagement and organizational commitment among academicians. The results of the study were analyzed on the bases of self-administrated questionnaires, where the finding shows the negative relationship between disengagement and organizational commitment. From the results of the study, it has been concluded that disengagement in academicians affect the commitment, therefore, it has been concluded that disengagement is a measuring factor of organizational productivity. The results of the study addressed to the students, academicians and administration of the universities and policy makers of the higher education.
12) Violence behind Closed Doors: Abusive Parenting and Problem Behaviors in Adolescents
Author(s):Syeda Fariha Iram Rizvi & Najma Najam

Abstract :

Children and adolescents, remained victim of abuse, are at risk of problem behaviors. The objective of the study was to investigate adolescents’ experiences of physically abusive parenting and associated emotional, behavioral problems. A sample of 300 adolescents from public and private schools of Lahore (Pakistan), participated in the study. Youth Self-Report (YSR) was used for screening of problem behaviors and to measure the experiences of physical abuse an indigenous self-report Physical Abuse Scale (PAS) was developed in Urdu with all protocols of development of a scale. Findings revealed that adolescents, experienced abusive parenting have greater risk of emotional, behavioral problems. Regression analysis also revealed that family size, family system and abusive parenting significantly contributed in the internalizing, externalizing and total problem behavior score. Findings of the research might contribute in growing literature of child abuse as well as can increase awareness of parents, teachers, mental health professional and society to identify that how physically abusive parenting can damage adolescents’ emotions and behavior.
13) Intertextuality: An Effective Tool in Selling Products Through Advertisements
Author(s):Akhtar Ali & Ayesha Aslam

Abstract :

The study explores that how intertextuality is used to put certain effects on the readers and attract them to buy that particular products. The main goal of advertising is to gain readers’ trust and interest positively. This is achieved through such advertisements which appeal to the readers. Sillars (1991, p. 35-63) has explained that the effects are gained when the advertisement and the reader share the knowledge. The study is qualitative in nature and CDA, discourse practice analysis model is applied to conduct the research study. Six different advertisements are used from different newspapers to analyze and to illustrate the functionality of intertextuality. The results of the study are that when advertisements are relevant to the identity of the society, it creates curiosity in the reader to buy it. Thus intertextuality is very effective tool in the selling of products.
14) Relationship of Different Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students
Author(s):Syed Afzal Shah, Shakeel Ahmad & Jamil Ahmad Chitrali

Abstract :

The present study was conducted to find the relationship of different levels of socioeconomic status in managing the academic achievement of their children at secondary level. The objectives of the study were; 1) To explore different levels of parental socioeconomic status of students 2) to assess the academic achievement of students at different levels of socioeconomic status 3) to find the relationship of different levels of socioeconomic status with academic achievement of secondary school students. For the achievement of objectives, Data of 1438 students were collected from 84 schools of Abbotabad, Haripur and Mansehra, of Hazara Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan through a pre-framed questionnaire whereas marks obtained in Grade 9 were taken as Students’ academic achievement. The data was analyzed by using and percentage, and Pearson Correlation coefficient. The Results indicated that the students belonging to average and above average level of socioeconomic status academically perform better at secondary level. Further, in depth analysis found a significant positive correlation between average and above average levels of socioeconomic status and academic achievement of students.
15) Determinants of Inflation and Population Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Approach
Author(s):Sanam Wagma Khattak & Syed Faizan Iftikhar

Abstract :

Probably determined ascent in value levels antagonistically influences the financial execution of any nation. The objective of every last Government is to keep up low and moderately stable levels of expansion. This study dissected the real determinants of swelling in Pakistan by utilizing time arrangement information from 1981 to 2015. The study utilized Johansen-Co incorporation approach to test for the presence of long run relationship between the variables. The Co-coordination relapse so far considers just long-run property of the model. This study reasoned that swapping scale, expansive cash and populace development positively affect swelling in long run. Then again unemployment has negative impact however is not huge. The cash coefficient is 0.01% suggesting that one percent expansion in cash supply prompts 1% expansion in value level and it is the most noteworthy component of swelling in Pakistan’s economy.
16) Communication and Language Policy in Pakistan
Author(s):Faizullah Jan

Abstract :

Communication and language policies have far-reaching educational, economic, and political effects. In multiethnic countries, like Pakistan, language policies can determine who has access to schools, who has opportunities for economic advancement, who participates in political decisions and who has access to jobs. In Pakistan, Urdu language has been given the status of the national language whereas English is the official language. In a country where more than 35 languages are spoken, privileging two languages over indigenous language can marginalize people whose mother-tongues are other than Urdu and English or who cannot speak these two languages. This paper critically analyses the communication and language policy of the government of Pakistan. Through the case studies of the government of Pakistan’s 2009 educational policy and the media system in Pakistan, the authors explore how the current language policy further marginalize the already less-privileged ethnic groups in the smaller provinces. The authors argue that the problematic language policy curtails the cultural advancement of the indigenous groups, and deprives them of economic, political, and social opportunities. The authors recommend that government should give official status to the indigenous or native languages of Pakistan, and promote those languages by making them a part of the educational system and popular culture.
17) An Empirical Analysis of Individual’s Happiness in Pakistan
Author(s):Farkhanda Jabeen & Faiza Azhar Khan

Abstract :

This study aims at analyzing the determinants of individual‟s happiness in Pakistan. However, this kind of research is hardly undertaken in Pakistan. The present study is first of its kind in Pakistan to analyze the determinants of individual happiness by using the data from World Values Survey (WVS) for three different waves, which are 1994-1998, 1999-2004, and 2010-2014. Total sample consists of 3,933 individuals with 733 individuals in the 1994-98 wave, 2000 individuals in the 1999-2004 wave and 1200 individuals in the recent wave of 2010-2014. Happiness is measured by a question regarding feeling of happiness of individuals on a four-point scale with the options, very happy, quite happy, not very happy, and not at all happy. This happiness measure is regressed on socio-economic and demographic variables, namely, age, health status, gender, marital status, education, income, children, employment status, importance of religion, family saving during past year, trust and satisfaction with financial situation of household. Ordered Probit regression technique is used for estimation. Interestingly, the percentage of „very happy‟ individuals has increased over time in Pakistan as in the 1994-98 wave the frequency of very happy individuals is 28% which increased to 45% in the recent wave. However, happiness is lower for males, married persons and for aged people and for persons, having children. Results suggest the need for policy makers to adopt social programs to increase
18) Social Media and Protest Behavior
Author(s):Qasim Mahmood, Amira Sariyati Binti Firduas & Hamedi Bin Mohd Adnan

Abstract :

The study adds a great deal of understanding about the use of social media for political purpose. The current review paper brings to the knowledge that the consumption of social media for news stimulates political debates among the users that ultimately leads them to find solutions of their political problems. The paper tells that if the authorities do not address the concerns of the users then new media technologies serve as instruments and facilitate them to contrive different devices to achieve their goals. So the use of social media for getting news, discussing political issues and other public affairs ultimately fetch protest behavior among its users in order to raise demands for solving their political problems. Moreover, disintermediation of social media and its anti-hegemonic nature make it more appealing as a global agenda setter for the users to highlight their disquiets at international level.
19) Students’ Perceptions about the Provision of Psychosocial Guidance and Counseling Services at the Secondary School Level
Author(s):Syed Munir Ahmad, Syed Afzal Shah & Jamil Ahmad Chitrali

Abstract :

This quantitative study aimed at investigating the availability of psychosocial guidance and counseling services in secondary schools of district Haripur. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the provision of psychosocial guidance and counseling services in the secondary schools, compare urban and rural areas in the provision of psychosocial guidance and counseling services, and compare differences between male and female schools regarding the provision of guidance and counseling services. Population of the study consisted of all students of Grade 10 studying at the secondary school level in District Haripur. A sample of 400 students was randomly selected from grade 10 students, using stratified random sampling technique. The data was collected using questionnaire validated through experts. The collected data was analyzed using percentages and student t-test. Results of the study indicate that formally, there was no provision of psychosocial guidance and counseling services to the secondary school students. Informally, psychosocial guidance and counseling services were more frequently provided in urban schools compared to rural schools. There is a need for establishing formal structures and mechanisms for providing guidance and counselling services in schools for supporting students, instrumental for student career decisions and all-round development.
20) Causes of Education Quality Deterioration in Secondary Education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Author(s):Mohammad Javed, Syed Munir Ahmad & Mohammad Iqbal

Abstract :

This descriptive study was carried out in six districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. The focus of the study was on analysing the causes of education quality deterioration at the secondary school level in KP. Of the purposively selected study population of 1006 secondary school teachers and 20676 students of 9th and 10th grades, the sample included 302 (30%) teachers and 6203 (30%) students. Two self-constructed opinionnaires containing 45 items each were used for gathering data from the teachers and students. This paper focuses on discussing students’ perspectives on the causes of quality of education issues at the secondary school level. The main findings of the study are that deterioration of quality at the secondary school level is due to in-adequate mechanism of monitoring and supervision, defective examination system, lack of needed infrastructural and physical facilities, over-crowded classrooms, shortage of qualified teaching staff, un-warranted political interference, obsolete teaching methodologies and lack of modern instructional facilities. Some crucial indicators for quality improvement are appointment of competent teaching staff, proper training of teachers and principals, and provision of infrastructural and instructional facilities.
21) The Impact of Parental Involvement on Children’s Education
Author(s):Shafqat Parveen, Sardar Hussain & Amjad Reba

Abstract :

The main purpose of this study was to explore the impact of parental involvement on children’s education. For student learning not only teachers are responsible, but their parents as well, this research aimed at exploring aspects of children’s education and development in relation to parental involvement. Two questionnaires were used for gathering data from the field from parents and students. Findings suggest that parental involvement is beneficial and effective in bringing out children potentialities. The findings also show that parents do not directly involve themselves in the teaching-learning process. They expect the teachers to develop children from every aspect. Parents have an equal share in the overall development of children.
22) The Perceptions of Teachers Concerning BS 4-Years Program: A Case Study of University of Peshawar
Author(s):Juwayriya Zia & Uzma Dayan

Abstract :

This qualitative study aimed at investigating the perceptions of university teachers concerning Bachelor of Studies (BS) program at the University of Peshawar. Teachers of twenty disciplines from faculties including basic and life sciences, numerical sciences and social sciences constituted the sample. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The views of teachers regarding the impact of the BS program on the university environment, the attitude of BS students and the problems faced by the teachers were explored. The findings include a categorical positive change in the behavior of BS students. The study revealed that although a vast majority of BS students are very responsive and participative; teachers of BS program are overloaded. Due to heavy workload their professional development bears both positive and negative aspects. Diversity and variety of subjects in the curriculum of BS program make it positive while rapid exams and preparing results make it difficult for the teachers to concentrate on their research and other related tasks. The system of evaluating the students is of good standard, but it is partially implemented. The induction of sufficient regular staff for the BS program, in-service training and proper implementation of assessment techniques have been recommended.
23) An Account of the Qarlūq/Qarlūgh Turks in Hazāra
Author(s):Fazal Sher & Abdur Rahman

Abstract :

The Turkish race has a rich history. The legacy of their rule and dominance could be traced in many parts of Asia, including the Hazara regions, currently located in Pakistan. However, many people, including historians, lack clear knowledge of Turkish settlements in Hazara. This article attempts to shed light on the rich but forgotten history of Turks, particularly the Qarlūq/Qarlūgh who were a powerful Turkish tribe in the early medieval central Asia. The article traces how and when the Qarlūq/Qarlūgh settled and ruled over Hazara regions and how were they ultimately overpowered by other tribes.
24) Title and Contents
Author(s):Contents

Abstract :

Contents

Volume No. 23

Issue No. 2

PUTAJ Humanities and Social Sciences