Journal of Science and Technology

1) OPTIMIZATION OF LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS THROUGH EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR THE PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FROM ORANGE PEELS

Authors

FAHEEM AHMED KHAN, NAFEES BACHA, SARZAMIN KHAN, LUBNA HALEEM, WAQAS ALAM ,

Abstract

Orange peels are one of the main by-products of the citrus processing industry. Due to their microbial support capability on one hand, if discarded these may be a threat to a different form of life while on the other hand, they contain essential nutrients to support the growth of beneficial microbes for production of single cell microbial protein. For maximum microbial growth, the process of response surface methodology was utilized to optimize different parameters such as temperature, pH, shaking (revolutions per minute) and glucose concentration. It was observed that 2.36% glucose,10% substrate, 0.5% ammonium nitrate,1% yeast extract, pH 5,32oC temperature, and shaking at 150 rpm were best growth parameters for indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to obtain their proteins. Obtained single cell microbial protein was then evaluated for the presence of different amino acids. Results showed that concentration of aspartic acid was high followed by leucine i.e. 17.82±3.97% and 15.90±2.33% respectively on the other hand produced single cell protein was deficient in methionine. These results were analyzed through High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) using Ortho Phthalaldehyde (OPA) as afluorescent agent. It is concluded that using response surface methodology different parameters can be effectively optimized for the growth of indigenous S. cerevisiae. As single cell microbial protein is the good source of amino acids these can be used as a protein source for human, an

2) IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON GROUND WATER QUALITY OF HATTAR INDUSTRIAL ESTATE AND ITS ASSOCIATED HEALTH RISKS

Authors

MUHAMMAD ASAD KHAN, MUHAMMAD AYAZ KHAN, ZIA URRAHMAN, ABDULLAH KHAN, SALMAN KHAN ,

Abstract

Current study was under taken to analyze underground water of the Hattar Industrial Estate (HIE) and that of reference areas for physio-chemical and biological parameters and to determine health impacts associated with the contamination of the water bodies.For this purpose, random sampling technique is used. A total of thirty-five samples of underground water were collected from the source and user points, and were analyzed for physio-chemical i.e. Temperature, pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Alkalinity, Ca-hardness, Mg-hardness, Total Hardness (TH), Chlorine (Cl), Nitrates (NO3). The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards and National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) that showed that most of the parameters were within the prescribed limits. It is concluded that water quality of industrial area is as good as the control site because there is no significance difference in the water quality of industrial area as compared with that of control site.

3) FLOOD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN UNION COUNCIL JAHANGIRA, DISTRICT NOWSHERA, PAKISTAN

Authors

AMIR NAWAZ KHAN, SHAH NAWAZ KHAN, SAFI ULLAH MUHAMMAD AQIL AND SAID QASIM ,

Abstract

Flood 2010 is one of the devastating disasters in the history of Pakistan that affected more than 70 districts and lefts millions of people at risk across the country. The rehabilitation and reconstruction process attained both national and international attention; however, some of the areas were overlooked and were not given proper attention, due to which vulnerability of the people exacerbates to future floods. Keeping in view the said situation, a research study entitled ‘Flood vulnerability assessment is conducted in Union Council (UC) Jahangira, district Nowshera, Pakistan. The main objectives of this study were to identify elements at risk, assess vulnerabilities of the people, to determine triggers for vulnerability to flood disaster and to suggest remedial measures for vulnerability reduction in the study area. A total of 60 respondents were selected through simple random sampling technique. The primary data was collected through questionnaire and interview schedule. The present study found that monsoonal rainfall is one of the main causes of floods in the area. The study area is highly exposed to floods due to its geographical location and weak physical infrastructure. The study area is located at the bank of River Kabul. Most of the houses were muddy and cannot resist flood water due to lack of engineering measures. The study revealed that agriculture sector is highly prone to floods due to its proximity and inadequate mitigation measures. The local population esp

4) WORKING EFFICIENCY OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT FACILITY IN HAYATABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATES, PESHAWAR

Authors

SAEED REHMAN, MUHAMMAD ADNAN, MUHAMMAD IQBAL, MUHAMMAD NAFEES ,

Abstract

The analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater is integral part of water recycling and reusing. The study shows assessment of wastewater treatment facility in Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar, Pakistan. The facility is established on the main drain of the industrial estate to overcome the pollution load. The wastewater samples were taken from inlet and outlet of the facility. The study revealed that performance of the facility is poor with respect to reduction in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The performance efficiency of TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, was 0.12%, 0.34%, 1.69%, and 0.44% respectively. The efficiency was in order of BOD>COD>TSS>TDS. It was found that the wastewater is polluted and the facility has least control on pollution reduction. The values were compared with NEQs, which concluded that the treatment facility is unable to reduce contaminant load. As the treatment facility undertakes only physical treatment; further study is recommended to upgrade its feasibility for the prescribed industrial effluents.

5) GROWTH OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN PAKISTAN: NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL CONTEXT

Authors

MUHAMMAD JAWED IQBAL AND AHSAN ULLAH ,

Abstract

Growth of manufacturing in Pakistan and the provinces is analyzed in terms of changes at national and provincial levels, mainly from 1969-70 (after restoration of provinces) to the year 2005-06. To measure the industrial growth two significant structural variables i.e. average daily employment (ADE) and value added (VA) have been employed. In Pakistan manufacturing employment increased continuously but was marked by high and low growth rates. After nationalization of industry in 1972, the growth rate declined to the lowest ever (0.80 per cent) over the decade 1969-70 to 1979-80. The revival of manufacturing through private initiative gave a boost which became pronounced in the period 2001 to 2006, attaining an exceptionally high average annual growth rate (AAGR) of 7.22 percent. Punjab witnessed remarkable growth of ADE, almost 150 per cent increase during the period 1969-70 to 2005-06. Sindh recorded continuous growth, especially with 2.35 per cent growth ratein the year 2005-06. Both in N.W.F.P. (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Balochistan progress in manufacturing was slow and marked by fluctuations in industrial employment from time to time. High increases in VA were continuously recorded throughout the past sixty years with an AAGR from 22.90 percent, the lowest during the decade 1990-91 to 2000-01, to that of 43.21 percent for the five-year period, 2000-01 to 2005-06. In Punjab the growth pattern of VA was similar to that of Pakistan with high growth rates in various period

6) ASSESSMENT OF DRINKINGWATER QUALITY IN RELATION TO SANITAION IN HARIPUR CITY PAKISTAN

Authors

IDREES KHAN, ABDULLAH KHAN, WISAL SHAH, MUHAMMAD ZIAD AND MUHAMMAD RIZWAN ,

Abstract

The present research work was conducted for the purpose to assess drinking water quality in relation to sanitation system in Haripur city. Drinking water samples were collected at consumer end from 31 various locations for physico-chemical and biological analysis. Major Chemical parameters like were pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS),Total Suspended solids (TSS), Total Solids (TS), alkalinity, phosphate (PO4-3), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO4-2), chloride (Cl-), total hardness, calcium hardness (Ca+2), magnesium hardness (Mg+2), sodium (Na+)and potassium (K+) were analyzed. Results of the study showed that all the parameters were inpermissible limits except pH (8.7) and total suspended solid (TSS) (29.7). Both pH and total suspended solid (TSS) were found exceeding the recommended level addressed by WHO and Pakistan water quality standards. On other hand, biological contamination was found to be in the form of total coli form and E.colithat makes the water of the study area unsuitable for drinking and is causing major health implications such as diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, hepatitis etc.

7) A HOLISTIC VIEW OF TECHNOLOGY DEPENDENT LANGUAGE LEARNING: A MOBILE BASED APPROACH FOR LEARNERS AND TEACHERS

Authors

MUHAMMAD MOONEEB ALI AND TAYYABA YASMIN ,

Abstract

Now days, the modernizations in the technologies are significantly contributing to the excellence in every discipline of the world including education. Despite limitations technologies related to every discipline the technology is swiftly fascinating fresh consumers, providing growing volume, and permitting more cultured use. Mobile technology is one of the innovations in this world of technology. Since the mobile technology is becoming quite available for every individual as well as society all around the world, it is also helping and playing a pivotal role in informal and formal context. All these features motivated the technicians to develop different technological applications related to Mobile and then the process of learning through mobile was initiated which is known as (ML) Mobile Learning. When we talk about Language learning through the use of mobile phone technology it is called Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) which is trend and phenomenon in western society. The purpose of this study is to find out the principles, nature, pros and cons, and the upcoming challenges and prospects related to Mobile assisted language learning. This study will also focus upon the pedagogic implications with their applications and implications on Second language context of learning with special reference to Pakistani context.

Volume No. 40

Issue No. 2