Pakistan Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies

1) Preliminaries


Title Page, Note from Editor

2) Table of Contents


Table of Contents

3) The "ISIS" Online Media War: A Construction of Ideology through Terrorism| By: Khalid Sultan


Terrorism portrayal through mass media continues to be unabated and has caught the attention of the entire globe. Frequent acts of terrorism have been covered more solidly and professionally by the terrorists' organizations owing to the new technological development that has changed the structure of mass media industry. This paper seeks to examine the mass media war for the construction of an ideology on the social media by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). In the process of such understanding, the paper addresses the following four questions: First, how ISIS media war was initiated, and how far it has gone. Second, what is the basic phenomenon behind ISIS media, and its objectives? Third what age groups of consumers are targeted, and how they are motivated to follow ISIS? Finally, how frequently is the ISIS manipulating the online media?

4) A Survey of Social Exclusion, Media Portrayal, and Services for Christians Minorities in Pakistan| By: Akhlaq Ahmad, Bilal Shaukat & Muhammad Saeed


Social exclusion of religious minorities affects them in a number of ways. The main purpose of the present research is to explore the social recognition, freedom of religious practices, feeling of isolation and insecurity amongst minorities in Pakistan. A survey was conducted on 250 sampled respondents through proportionate random sampling technique. An interview schedule was prepared by the researchers contacting different parts to collect data from the respondents. The results indicate that respondents are facing problems regarding their social recognition, freedom of religious practices and as well as feeling of isolation and insecurity. On another side media is highlighting the issues as well. The present study suggest that there should be comprehensive plan of action/ awareness campaign regarding the promotion of spirits of interfaith harmony and dialogues among different segments of society including all minorities.

5) Mapping Trends of Violence in Peshawar: A Study of Selected Police Stations| By: Imran Ahmad Sajid & Muhammad Kamran


This paper presents the trends of violence in Peshawar district in Khyber Paktunkhwa province of Pakistan based on police reported cases. The data was collected from the First Information Reports (FIRs) of five (5) selected police stations of Peshawar including Gulbahar, Faqirabad, Yakkatoot, Mathra and Town police stations respectively. For this purpose, past three months FIRs were scanned for relevant data. A total of 1421 FIRs were scanned. A scanning schedule was developed with pre-coding. All the FIRs were converted to relevant Scanning Schedule forms. The data, then, was put into MS Excel Spread Sheets. The data reveals that most of the drug crimes occur in Gulbahar and Yakkatoot police station jurisdictions, a densely populated urban area. Highest frequency of murder cases was reported in Mathra police station jurisdiction, a sparsely populated rural area, while highest frequency of attempted murder was recorded in Yakkatoot police station jurisdiction, again a densely populated urban area. This study recommends online geographical visual imaging of crime data.

6) A Normative Approach towards the Training Needs of Journalists in the Post-conflict Scenario in Swat, Pakistan| By: Khalid Sultan


Pakistan's northern valley of Swat has witnessed an ensanguined and destructive battle that has affected every sphere of life in the region. During the period 2004-09, tensions escalated and the area turned into a site of fierce battles for territorial control between militants and the state. One of the effects of catastrophic conflict was the adverse fallout for the local media, including rampant violations of press freedom and a rise in threats to the physical security of media personnel. Journalists suffered frequent physical attacks, killings, and harassment, even as the militants established and ran illegal FM radio stations in the area. The post-conflict scenario in Swat therefore requires a rebuilding and reinforcement of professional local media, which have been left badly scarred by the conflict. The professional training of local journalists must form part of this effort. Against this background, this paper aims to present a normative approach towards meeting the training needs of journalists in post-conflict Swat, with a view to empowering them in performing their professional duties and ultimately enhancing the quality of media coverage in the area.

7) The Advantages of Links with Weak Peripheral Groups in Environments of Conflict| By: Ivan Gyozo Somlai


Consecutive attempts at negotiations between governments and insurgents have often failed, resulting in costly prolongation of hostilities. A need-based research to enable meaningful negotiations was thereupon initiated, resulting in pertinent findings such as: an obstinate reliance on traditional bilateral (antagonist-protagonist) negotiations when such forms may be anachronistic and contextually inappropriate; the existence of peripheral stakeholders (whom I call the ‘web in the shadows’) which by their diversity and potential or real influence could affect the outcome if properly channelled; sustained interference by outside actors (other governments and international groups); the multiplicity of sectors affected and the complexity of finding durable resolutions, thus favouring an interdisciplinary approach. I embarked on a resulting investigation of other applicable research as well as processes enabling peripheral groups to have a platform for input on the fate of—in effect—their own country. One promising concept which has resonance with this quest is that of weak links, which holds that assiduous use of weak ties can enhance access to novel, non-redundant information, can be crucial for technical advice and diffusion of ideas, strengthen collective expertise and bridge social classes and networks. Such a concept blends admirably with my original insurgency stakeholder research and consequentially recommended TransStakeholder Approach (TSA). Salient features o

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