The Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences

1) Supply Response of Basmati Rice: Evidence from Pakistan
Author(s):Abida Yousaf, Himayatullah Khan, Naila Erum

Abstract :

The study of agriculture supply response to prices has received immense prominence in recent years and is an important agenda for future research. The objective of the research is to understand the factors affecting the acreage basmati rice supply response in Pakistan covering the period from 1975-76 to 2012-13. The study empirically examines the own and cross price elasticity demand of basmati rice. The analysis of the own price and cross price elasticity indicates that a change in price of a single crop not only affects the land allocation and other resources for that particular crop but also changes the allocation of land to other crops depending upon their competitive relationship. The study concludes that own price and the price of irri rice significantly affect acreage under basmati rice. Regarding cotton the study found that the farm gate price of cotton is insignificant determinant of the basmati rice area while high price of fertilizer have negative impact on basmati rice acreage. Policy makers should formulate such a comprehensive agricultural policy that should treat all the determinants of basmati rice acreage as a group because prices of other crops like irri rice also have significant impact on acreage supply response of basmati rice. Fertilizer price has negative relation with the rice production in this regard to sustain higher rice production government should provide subsidized fertilizers to rice farmers. Technological change is at the heart of high growth
2) Legal Pluralism in Traditional Societies: A Case of Agricultural Marketing Relations in Northwest Pakistan
Author(s):Inayatullah Jan & Waqar Akram

Abstract :

One of the characteristics of traditional village system in the developing countries is the existence of plural legal systems governing social, economic, and political life of the populations. One such example is the prevalence of formal and informal marketing relations in traditional village system in northwest Pakistan. Changes in marketing structures overtime have led to transform the balance between prevailing formal and informal marketing relations. This paper analyzes the marketing relations in northwest Pakistan and changes in this relationship over time. The findings of the paper reveal that two types of regulative mechanisms co-exist in the area that govern the agricultural marketing system: the societal regulative mechanism and the commercialized regulative mechanism. The former is governed by the informal and personalized relations and the latter by new formal and commercialized relations. Due to the rapid influences of modernization and urbanization in the recent past, a shift has taken place from personalized relations to the specialized functional relationships. Despite a tremendous expansion in the new relations, however, farmers‟ switch-over rate is slow because of the functional efficiency of the new system having comparative advantages for the elite groups (progressive farmers) only. To hamper the expansion of potential social polarization in the wake of this imbalanced effect, the large groups of small farmers adhere to the traditional informal relations.
3) To Laugh or not to Laugh: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Humour Employed in Khabardaar
Author(s):Kaleem Raza Khan & Shumaila Shafket Ali

Abstract :

Although the primary function of humour is to make people laugh, it also plays a major role in shaping people‟s attitudes. Apparently the function of humour is to generate laughter in order to amuse people and release their tension but verbal humour also involves the use of language to construct or deconstruct people‟s identity. The aim of the current study is to explore the identity constructed through the humour employed in one of the programmes: Khabardaar telecast on Express, a Pakistani News channel, in order to unmask the hidden ideologies. Being a qualitative case study, instances of verbal humour taken from different shows of the programme are analyzed within the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis. The data analysis reveals that in most of the cases the physical features of people, including their obesity and skin colour, are made the target of humour. The study exposes injustice against such people who are considered physically unattractive, according to our cultural notion of attractiveness and addresses the issue of inequality highlighted by Fairclough (1995). The humour is not just confined to the physical appearance of people but also involves ridiculing people on the basis of their gender, ethnicity, and nationality. The paper ends with a note of recommendation for the TV channels in general and the comedians in particular, that advertently or inadvertently, become agents in spreading hatred and intolerance against individuals and groups leading to fur
4) Age and Gender as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being
Author(s):Rukhsana Y. Maroof & Muhammad Jahanzeb Khan

Abstract :

The current study was designed to explore the potential relationship of psychological well-being with age and gender. A sample of 400 individuals, representative of both genders (men=185 & women=215 within an age range of 17 to 50 years) was drawn from various colleges and universities of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Ryff’s (1989) psychological well-being scale (middle version consisting of 54 items) was used as a tool to collect the relevant information. According to the results, gender accounted for significant variation in psychological well-being. Men outperformed women on four of six dimensions of psychological well-being (i.e., environmental mastery, personal growth, autonomy, and purpose in life). However, no significant gender differences were found on the aspects of positive relations with others and self-acceptance that indicates that, on average, men and women are alike in these dimensions. A strong relationship was also observed between age and psychological well-being attesting psychological well-being as dependent on age.
5) Gender Inequality and Construction of Identity in ELT Scenario
Author(s):Samia Naz & Saiqa Imtiaz Asif

Abstract :

The paper focuses on male and female learners‟ notion of symbolic capital for construction of identity in Pakistani society where gender inequality leads to low investment on daughters‟ education. This research answers following questions: 1. Does gender discrimination exist in different social classes? 2. How does low investment on daughters‟ physical capital affect male and female English language learners‟ struggle for construction of identity? We used triangulation method to collect the data. One government and one private college (male and female each) were selected in two districts of Punjab. Thirty-two male and female low and high scorers studying at intermediate level and their parents were interviewed. We observed their homes. The results of college exams of class were analysed through SPSS1. The findings suggest that in spite of low investment on daughters‟ physical capital, the female students showed their commitment to build their identity.
6) Oneiric Reality of “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”: A Jungian Analysis1
Author(s):Syed Zahid Ali Shah & Nasir Jamal Khattak

Abstract :

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’s somewhat awkward reception initially put Coleridge into a difficulty of how to defend its lack of logic and unintelligibility of events. As a handy solution to the problem he sub-titled the poem as ‗a poet‘s reverie.‘ This topical strategy proved counterproductive. In the wake of psychoanalytic literary criticism this aspect of the poem is greatly focused upon to explore the unconscious workings of the mind as a backstage performance. Mostly judged on the bases of the ballad‘s dream-like atmosphere, there have been speculations on its sources of ancestry and frequent efforts have been made to justify these connections one way or the other. If placed within the atmosphere of dreams and soundly defended with arguments, the poem would serve not only to read its complicated symbolic patterns and some seemingly illogical incidents, but also establish a connection of the dream-world to our psychological dynamics as human beings. The making of connections simultaneously smoothens out disturbances in the mind by integrating new material—calming a storm—and also produces more and broader connections by weaving in new material. It does not simply consolidate memory, but interweaves and increases memory connections. In the Mariner‘s story, which is by and large an oneiric experience, his dream symbols reflect the condition of his inner world.
7) Influence of Capital Structure Choice on Firm Performance: A Case of Listed Non-Financial Firms of Pakistan
Author(s):Zia ur Rehman, Muhammad Ayub Siddiqui & Asad Khan

Abstract :

Capital structure and its relation with firm value continue to attract researcher’s interest around the world to get deeper understanding on the matter concerned. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate whether capital structure choice influences firm profitability or not in listed non-financial firms of Pakistan. Panel data regression (fixed effects model) was used to examine the relationship and effect of capital structure choice and firm performance. Secondary data from 2008-2013 was used for this study. The findings of the study revealed that capital structure choice measured through short-term debt (STD), long-term debt (LTD) and total debt (TD) has a negative but statistically weak relationship with firm performance measured through ROA and ROE. In case of firm performance measured through GPR, capital structure choice measured through LTD and TD shows positive and statistically significant relationship with firm performance whereas in case of STD it is negative but statistically significant.

Volume No. XXIV

Issue No. 1

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