Journal of Science and Technology

1) ETHNOBOTANY AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF NON-FLOWERING PLANTS OF KALASH VALLEY, DISTRICT CHITRAL, HINDUKUSH RANGE, PAKISTAN
Author(s):FAZAL HADI, MUHAMMAD IBRAR

Abstract :

Abstract: The present study describes the non-flowering plants of Kalash valley, district Chitral. Perhaps very few researchers worked on this aspect of plant diversity in Pakistan. Kalash valley is interesting not only for its natural resources and medicinal plants but it also inhabits descendants of Alexander the Great with indigenous culture and language that attracts national and international interest. 15 species of non flowering plants belonging to 12 genera were reported from Birir, Bumburet and Rumbor areas of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Pakistan. Out of 10 families, Pteridophyte was a leading group with six families Adiantaceae, Aspleniaceae, Cystopteridaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Equisetaceae and Pteridaceae followed Bryophytes with four families Aytoniaceae, Funariaceae, Marchantiaceae and Polytrichaceae. Fungi have only one family Halveliaceae. Each of the species is represented by botanical names, families, distribution, conservation status and ethnobotanical uses. The plants are mostly critically endangered and are seem to be at severe treats due to anthropogenic hazards and habitats lose. Some of these plants are locally used as vegetables, fodder, expectorant, anti-pyretic and diuretic.
2) ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM 10 & PM 2.5) AND ASSOCIATED HEALTH PROBLEMS IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF CEMENT INDUSTRY, HATTAR, HARIPUR
Author(s):WAQAS AHMAD, SOBIA NISA, MUHAMMAD NAFEES, RAHIB HUSSAIN

Abstract :

Abstract: The present study was conducted on cement industry at Hattar Industrial Estate, Haripur for assessment of particulate matter (PM10 & PM2.5) and its health impact on factory workers and nearby local community. Ten samples were collected from different units of cement industry and analyzed for PM10 & PM2.5.The concentrations of PM10 & 3 2.5 varied in different units of cement industry. The highest mean concentrations of PM10 &PM 2.5were found 1552 and 7867.5 (µg/m³) in main crusher and cement mill respectively. Eighty percent of samples (both PM10 &d PM 2.5) were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), set by Pakistan. The air pollution index (API) revealed, that majority units released high amount of particulate matter to environment, which pose significant health risk to local community. The particulate matter released by cement industry have significant impacts on human health especially the respiratory system. Therefore, it was recommended to install air pollution control devices for particulate matter, so as to minimize dust pollution inside the industry and nearby localities.
3) THE TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES AT DECADAL SCALE IN PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF MARCH (1950S-2000S)
Author(s):IFTIKHAR AHMAD, ROMANA AMBREEN, SAID QASIM, AHMAD SAEED, SHAHZAD SULTAN

Abstract :

Abstract: It is highly pertinent to analyze the temperature and their spatial anomalies in Pakistan at decadal scale in different months of the year. In this paper we analyze the month of March from 1950s-2000s based on the temperature data from 47 stations that covers almost all Pakistan. The data are obtained from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD). The temperature coefficient has been calculated by making use of linear regression. The results have been mapped that show indelible variability of temperature at decadal level in different areas of Pakistan. The rugged terrains of Pakistan reflect significant temperature variability in the decades of 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and the decade of 2000s as well. The highest temperature anomalies are recorded in 2000s in the country explicitly indicative of temperature above average and found in compliance with global warming. In this study, a geographical approach has been adopted to explain the spatial-temporal variations of temperature over the study period in Pakistan with regional detail.
4) PROBLEMS, POTENTIAL AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN REGION, NORTHERN PAKISTAN
Author(s):FAZLUR-RAHMAN , IFFAT TABASSUM, FAZLUL HAQ

Abstract :

Abstract: The establishment and development of tourist resorts in the hilly and mountainous areas of the Indian subcontinent is one of the main contributions of the colonial rule. However, the Gilgit-Baltistan region became one of the main tourist attraction regions in the northern mountainous belt of Pakistan after the completion of Karakorum Highway in the late 1970s. The diversity in physical landscape and anthropogenic characteristics are the main attractions for international as well as domestic tourists. This region has wide potential for tourism and is famous for mountaineering and adventure tourism. In the present study time series data were collected and analysed to highlight the region-wise composition as well as temporal changes in the inflow of foreign tourists. The results of this study reveal that the inflow of international tourists is closely associated with regional and international events as well as law and order situation at local/national levels.
5) IMPACT OF CHASHMA RIGHT BANK CANAL (CRBC) ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION OF DISTRICT D.I. KHAN: AN EX POST EVALUATION
Author(s):ATTA-UR-RAHMAN , AMIR NAWAZ KHAN KHAN, SHAH NAWAZ KHAN, SAID QASIM,

Abstract :

Abstract: This paper attempts to explore the impact of Chashma Right Bank Canal (CRBC) on the agricultural production of D.I. Khan district. In this study focus has been made on the ex post impact evaluation. CRBC is 272km long canal and commands 250,000ha, out of which 61% lies in D.I. Khan district. Work on the CRBC was started in 1984 and was completed in three stages during 2003. Data were collected both from primary and secondary sources. In order to achieve the mandated task, analysis was carried out both at macro (district) and micro (village) level. The analysis revealed that there has been substantial increase in the agricultural production after the inception of CRBC. High agricultural production was largely confined to the CRBC command area. In D.I. Khan district, the agricultural production of almost all the Rabi and Kharif crops was enhanced as a result of CRBC. The increase in agricultural production was recorded in rice, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, maize, pulses and orchard, whereas negative change in agricultural production occurred in millet, barley, sorghum and oilseed.
6) ANALYSIS OF THE COMMUNITY BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF TEHSIL CHARSADDA KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
Author(s):AMIR NAWAZ KHAN, SHAH NAWAZ KHAN, IDREES JEHAN,

Abstract :

Abstract: The Early warning systems play a critical role in minimizing, and in some cases preventing, the hazardous effects of disasters. This study was conducted during 2013, in district Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The objectives of the study were to find out the efficiency of existing early warning system, to explore the role of community based early warning system in emergency. The tools used for data collection were questionnaire while sample design was simple random sampling. Majority of the respondents believe on early warning system. They suggested that the existing early warning system could be strengthening by giving trainings and awareness to the local people. The people of the study area know early warning system. They give response to early warning system. The present early warning system could be result oriented if the local people are involved. At the end of data analysis, it was found out that the study area requires an updated early warning system to lessen the damages. The present early warning system could be successful and advance by mutual gathering and by giving education to the local community.
7) EVALUATION OF FASTNESS AND TENSILE PROPERTIES OF COTTON FABRIC DYED WITH ROOT EXTRACTS OF ACACIA CATECHU BY PAD-STEAM PROCEDURE
Author(s):SHAHNAZ PARVEEN KHATTAK, SHABANA RAFIQUE, ZIL E HUMA MUJEEB, BASHIR AHMAD, TANVEER HUSSAIN,

Abstract :

Abstract: The present study was aimed to examine the possibility of increasing the fastness properties of natural dyes on cotton fabric by employing different dyeing auxiliaries such as mordants, UV absorbers, cationizing agents and crosslinkers. Solvent extracted dye from cutch (Acacia catechu) was applied on cotton fabric through pad-steam dyeing procedure. Metallic mordants (aluminiumsulphate, copper sulphate, ferric chloride, potassium dichromate and hydrated potassium aluminum sulphate or alum) were applied by pre-mordanting and post-mordanting methods. Cutch root extract yielded variety of brown shades with different mordants. It made an excellent demonstration of the fastness properties and tensile strength of cotton. Better fastness (wash, light, crocking); enhanced colour properties (chroma, hue and colour strength etc.) as well as improved tensile strength was achieved with post-mordanting of copper sulphate. Cationization of cotton with quaternary ammonium compound has improved the fastness properties, tensile strength as well as relative colour strength (K/S). Post-padding of reactive UV absorber based on oxalanilide and UV absorber of heterocyclic compound greatly increased the light fastness of cotton dyed with this dye. Similarly, post-treatment of soft polyurethane emulsion have made enhancement in the light and wash fastness as well as retaining the tensile strength of dyed cotton. Improved fastness properties and tensile strength also resulted from the post
8) IMPACT OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES ON THE TENSILE AND TEAR STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF PIGMENT DYED P/C FABRICS BY POST & META FINISHING MODES OF APPLICATION
Author(s):SHABANA RAFIQUE, SHAHNAZ PARVEEN KHATTAK, TANVEER HUSSAIN, BASHIR AHMAD, FAIZA TAUQEER

Abstract :

Abstract: The present study comprises the evaluation of a compatible environmentally friendly pigment/finish colouration system for polyester/cotton (P/C) blended fabrics with special reference to the important durability properties. An optimized binder system was applied on P/C blended fabrics with different functional finishes, by post and meta finishing methods on a padder at 70%wet pick up. The tensile and tear strength characteristics of treated specimens were evaluated regarding effect of different types of finishes, concentrations and modes of application. According to the results the maximum tensile strength in treated fabrics was provoked by oil and water repellent finish, constituted on dispersion of a fluorine compound. As regards the effect of finish concentration, the average tensile strength was found to be improved at increased ratio of finish. It is evident that simultaneously dyed and finished fabrics induced good tensile strength at high concentration but with the same finishing reagents and conditions, the post finishing method gave comparatively better response. As regards the single step pigment dyed and finished P/C fabric with UV absorber is concerned, the P/C fabric had endured the tensile force very well. The tear strength of Pekoflam OP liquid flame retardant that was based on organic phosphorous, caused the fabric to be tremendously increased by the simultaneous application of finish with dyeing formulation. As regards the finish concentration,

Volume No. 37

Issue No. 2

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