The Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences

1) Threadbare Morality and The New World in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice
Author(s):Samina Ashfaq, Nasir Jamal Khattak

Abstract :

Jane Austen’s attitude towards morality has always been a debatable topic for those who consider morality as an integral part of religion. Though the daughter of a clergyman, she never discusses religion in her novels which is why she remains popular to this day. Austen, a keen observer of her society, can see that times change with new ideologies, inventions and contact with others at universal level because of modern means of communications. She knows that acceptance and respect for the opinions of others can lead to greater understanding and world peace. Her art of creating a microcosm which she calls “little bit (two inches wide) of ivory” 1 conveys the message through the stories of few families. This paper is an attempt to search how she tries to harmonize the characters of her novel belonging to different classes and social groups, by making them realize that if they keep on sticking to their old worn-out beliefs, they will never be able to bridge the gap with the others and taste the fruits of wholesome relationships.
2) Virginia Woolf's To The Lighthouse: Lily Briscoe’s Archetypal Behaviour
Author(s):Humaira Aslam

Abstract :

The archetype is a psychosomatic concept that links body, psyche, instinct and image. Jung asserts that images evoke the aim of the instincts, implying that they deserve equal significance. Archetypes are recognized in outer behaviours, namely those that cluster around basic and universal experiences of life, like motherhood, birth, death and separation. They are also part of the human psyche and are observable to inner or psychic life such as anima, shadow, persona and so forth. Archetypal patterns are realized in the personality and are capable of infinite variations depending upon individual expression. To give archetypal expression to something is to interact consciously with the collective unconscious; i.e., to interact with the historic image in such a way as to give opportunities to the play of intrinsic opposing forces. In order to prevent psychic disproportions conscious and unconscious states are harmonious in a balanced person. Dissolution of the compromise between the conscious and the unconscious renders the opposition even more intense and results in psychic disequilibrium. When this tension becomes intolerable, a solution must be discovered and the only viable relief is a reconciliation of the two at a different and more satisfactory level. Thus, Lily Briscoe sees a harmony in Mrs. Ramsay that she would like to achieve but remains unable to until she realizes and overcomes the shortcomings in her personality. She achieves that harmony in her painting only
3) Practicing Hijab (veil): A Source of Autonomy and Self-esteem for Modern Muslim Women
Author(s):Waseem Fayyaz, Anila Kamal

Abstract :

In various periods of history, hijab as a religious symbol has been under criticism by the west and the modernist forces. The disapproval of hijab increased in the aftermath of 9/11. The sections of society that oppose hijab associate this dress code historically with subordination and servility of Muslim women. In the present scenario, immigrant Muslim women in western countries and native Muslim women in the countries where the states control women dress code are specially frustrated in wearing the attire of their choice. However, they have asserted their dress preference against all odds. The present paper argues that hijab is merely a symbol. The oppression linked with it depends on the social and political dynamics of the society in which it is practiced. More than these, it depends on the will and the mental state of the wearer herself. This study develops the thesis that the present Muslim woman, by adopting hijab, is carving public space for herself and this dress serves as an instrument of autonomy and self-esteem for her.
4) Power Relationships and Transitivity Choices in Graham Greene’s Dream of a Strange Land
Author(s):Saadia Khan, Rubina Rahman

Abstract :

Stylistic analysis of a text uses many tools from linguistic research. Halliday’s model of transitivity choices offers one such method of textual investigation. Transitivity choices construct the reality of the text world and its characters. Burton (1996) takes a feminist stance and traces power relationship in Plath’s The Bell Jar where she establishes female character as a victim in power dynamics. This paper is an attempt to establish the pattern of power relationship in a male oriented domain in Greene’s short story Dream of a Strange Land. The paper concludes that power relationships are not necessarily gender bound. They are found between humans as a part of their existence.
5) A Minimalist Account of Structural Case Assignment in Pashto Conjoined Subject Constructions
Author(s):Talat Masood*, Mujib Rahman

Abstract :

Whereas cross-linguistically the verb of a conjoined subject either agrees with the first of the two conjuncts, called first conjunct agreement (FCA) or with the second conjunct, called second conjunct agreement (SCA) or last conjunct agreement (LCA), Pashto ao conjoined subjects are different in the sense that the verb shows agreement neither with the first conjunct nor the last conjunct. Rather, it shows agreement with the joint syntactic and semantic effect of the two conjoined subjects. Morphologically, in the present and future tenses, ao conjoined subjects show nominative Cases, while in the past tense they show accusative Cases. We propose, for Pashto ao conjoined subjects, following the minimalist idea of agreement in terms of features as responsible for structural Case assignment, that a single agree relation establishes between the conjoined subjects and T in the present and future tenses and between the conjoined subjects and Voice in the past tense. Agreement between T and ao conjoined subjects results in assigning nominative Case while agreement between Voice and ao conjoined subjects results in assigning accusative Case, as υ in the past tense Pashto constructions, we consider, to be defective in the Chomskian sense (2001). The overall conclusion, for structural Case assignment in Pashto ao conjoined subjects constructions, is that the minimalist idea of structural Case assignment as a result of features agreement between a functional head and a nominal hold eq
6) Conversation Analysis: Speech Acts in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House
Author(s):Rubina Rahman, Hina Gul Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

Conservation analysis has become the focus of investigative interest in recent years among discourse analysts. There is shift towards the investigation of characters in literature through their conversation seen as speech acts. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the use of the locutionary and illocutionary meanings in an extract from Ibsen’s A Doll’s House in order to investigate its impact on the characters’ actions and reactions. An examination has been made of the interplay between the direct and indirect speech acts which steer the plot to its inevitable conclusion. Using these speech acts as tool an analysis has been made of the imperative final conversation between Nora and Helmer, which not only forces Helmer to reconsider his attitude but also changes the course of literature written about women in the 19th century.
7) An Exercise in Literary Stylistics/Cognitive Poetics: “Humanity i love you” by e.e. cummings
Author(s):Humera Rahman*, Mujib Rahman Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

Literature, poetry in particular, has always intrigued readers, especially those who have an interest in delving deeper into it with a view to appreciating and interpreting it, such as literary critics, linguists, literary stylists, and more recently, cognitive linguists. The literary critic looks at it from an aesthetic point of view whereas the literary stylist and the cognitive linguist from the linguistic point of view with the latter adding a cognitive dimension to their interpretation. The most prevalent approach to studying poetry in Pakistan is the literary criticism approach. Very few would study literature through linguistics. Intrigued by both literary stylistics and cognitive linguistics, we studied some very obscure poems through these two approaches and discovered that they indeed were helpful in illuminating some of the hitherto obfuscated areas of those poems. In this essay, we present an application of literary stylistics and cognitive poetics to a poem by e. e. cummings, “Humanity I love you.”
8) The Shamming Self: The Mariner’s Persona in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Author(s):Syed Zahid Ali Shaha, Nasir Jamal Khattakb a Department of English, Islamia College (Chartered University), Peshawar, Pakistan b Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Peshawar,

Abstract :

This paper focuses on the psychic apparatus of Persona in Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner which Jung calls “only a mask of the collective psyche.” The Mariner’s journey in the familiar social surrounding, the “kirk” and the “light-house”, are images which symbolize ordinary social set up. Initially, the journey is a plain sailing as the Mariner and his peers are unconsciously conscious of a set of values that are ordinarily taken for granted. In the land of the “mist and snow” (symbolic of the unconscious), however, they come face to face with a situation that defies the normal parameters of their habitual social character. A temporary social acceptance (the Mariner’s surrender to the alternative judgments of his peers) is bargained at a very high price. The modern man’s claustrophobic isolation and with it the loss of identity are dilemmas resulting from one-sided consciousness. Man’s vital faculties (like those of the Mariner) suffer deathblows when they are wilfully strangulated in unnatural pursuits of meaningless recognitions. Our examination of the Mariner’s traumatic woes will yield extensive correspondences with contemporary social and civilizational debacles.
9) Velutha: The Abject1
Author(s):Shazia Ghulam Mohammada, Atteq ur Rahmanb a College of Home Economics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan b Department of English, Islamia College (Chartered University) , Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

Arundhati Roy situates the story of The God of Small Things in Ayemenem — a village in Kerala, in the south-west of India. It is a case study of Velutha, the untouchable whose very name smacks of loathing and nausea one feels at the mention of it let alone sight of him. By focusing on the cross-cultural caste system, Arundhati Roy takes up an issue of social, cultural and universal significance. It apparently deals with the identity of Velutha, a paravan, which is at stake. He is the one who is expected not to leave any footprints on the earth and any image in the mirror. His identity is an issue and at issue because social, cultural and “Love Laws” (33) 2 do not favour him or acknowledge his right to be. A closer analysis of the novel directs the reader’s mind to a series of underlying ‘lacks’ or voids at the core of formation of his subjectivity. The society constitutes a body from which Velutha is excluded as an undesirable or unhygienic element; he is objectified to which he retaliates. He seeks unconscious identification with the system from which he is expelled. .If Velutha is neither a subject nor an object then what is he? Who is he? This study provides a valid ground that Velutha does not qualify for both. Velutha’s dilemma can be better understood if he is placed on the borderline of subject-object distinction3. This study takes him as a specimen for analysis and examines his borderline position from the viewpoint of Julia Kristeva’s concept of abjec

Volume No. XXII

Issue No. 1

April