The Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences

1) Volume XXI, No 3, 2013 (December)
Author(s):Chief Editor Mujib Rahman, PhD (Edinburgh) Dean, Faculty of Arts & Humanities Department of English & Applied Linguistics University of Peshawar Editor Rubina Rahman, MSc (Edinburgh), PhD (Peshawar)

Abstract :

Nil
2) Faculty of Arts and Humanities University of Peshawar
Author(s):Faculty of Arts and Humanities University of Peshawar

Abstract :

ii The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS), a refereed and internationally indexed journal recognised by the HEC, is published triennially (April, August, and December) by the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of Peshawar, with the approval of the competent authority. No part of the material published in this journal be reproduced, reprinted, or copied without the prior permission of the editor.
3) Schema Disruption and Identity in Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in the Wonderland
Author(s):Sameera Abbas, Rubina Rahman

Abstract :

This paper focuses on the importance of schema and context in the interpretation of literary texts and its impact on reader and character identity. The understanding of literary texts is aided and enhanced when a reader is able to create a text world in their mind. A reader’s comprehension of a text is partly dependent on their background knowledge, which forms their already existing schema. The reader’s existing schema may be supported, challenged, or disrupted in a literary text, which may lead to the creation of new schema and a new reader identity. The newly created schema that might be similar to or different from the reader’s existing schema makes a text world for them, helping them in textual comprehension and an analysis of their self. This paper examines the first three chapters from Alice’s Adventures in the Wonderland by Lewis Carroll in the light of these notions. Carroll has been able to create a non-sense text world by manipulating the semantic complexity of language, and leads the main character to self-search. The paper draws on Elena Semino’s Schema Theory (1995) for the analysis.
4) Maturity in Self and Psycho-spiritual Well-being
Author(s):Mussarat Anwara, Muhammad Jehanzeb Khanb

Abstract :

Using Jungian model of human development, the question of emotional maturity in relation to psycho-spiritual well-being was explored in the sample of 500 adult population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The sample was composed of 262 men (52.4%) and 238 women (47.6%), whose age ranged from 17 to 47 with the mean age of 26.05 ± 6.381. Two main measures were utilized in this study, the Pearson-Marr Archetypal Indicator (to measure the degree of maturity in self) and Spiritual Well-being Scale (to measure existential and religious well-being). The results were discussed in terms of hypotheses involving the meditating role of the archetypes in psychological maturity and psycho-spiritual well-being. The evidence implicating psychological maturity in determining religiosity, spirituality and well-being was compelling. Most of the secondary predictions were confirmed. As predicted, psychologically mature respondents obtained higher scores on all measures of spiritual well-being. Spiritual poverty apparently resulted when a respondent’s major identification was with the lower levels of personal growth. Moreover, neurotic tendencies significantly reduced with psychological maturity and religious participation. These results confirm the importance of psychological maturity for psycho-spiritual health.
5) Ownership, Management and Utilization of Common Pool Resources in Mehlp Valley, Chitral, North Pakistan
Author(s):Fazlur-Rahman, Iffat Tabassum

Abstract :

In the remote mountainous valleys management of natural resources is closely associated with ownership regimes and perceived importance of resources for subsistence sustenance. Since livelihood strategies are quite similar in the Himalaya – Hindu Kush – Karakorum region of North Pakistan; however, the management techniques and utilization mechanisms adopted by the communities heavily depend on ownership regimes and availability of these resources within the territorial limits of a village. Usually, at micro level, locally available resources are kept under different ownership regimes. Access to, and withdrawal from the common pool resources is subject to a complicated system of rights, duties and responsibilities. With the passage of time autochthonous institution have been established for making appropriation rules without any external intervention. In this paper, an attempt is made to look into various aspects of ownership regimes, utilization pattern and management strategies of pasture resources in a remote valley in the Eastern Hindu Kush. Participant observation and focused group discussion were used for data collection. The results reveal that ownership and utilization pattern of the pasture resources is quite complicated. Though the ownerships are still held in de facto, however, the individual user groups are very effective in utilizing their resources in a sustainable way.
6) A Minimalist Account of Structural Case Assignment in Pashto Unergative Constructions
Author(s):Talat Masood, Mujib Rahman Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

Pashto unergatives, like other Pashto constructions, are characterized by split-ergativity with reference to tense; thus the subject nominal shows the nominative Case1 in the present and the future tenses, and the accusative Case in the past tense which requires the assignment of the two Cases by two different functional heads. Following the minimalist idea of agreement, we propose, for Pashto unergative constructions, that nominative Case to subject nominals is assigned as a result of ϕ-features agreement between the functional head T and the subject nominals, while accusative Case is assigned as a result of ϕ-features agreement with the functional head Voice; as υ in the past tense Pashto constructions is defective in the Chomskian (2001) sense. The overall conclusion for Case assignment in Pashto unergative constructions is that the minimalist idea of agreement between a nominal and a functional head as responsible for structural Case assignment is equally applicable to Pashto unergative Constructions.
7) Focalization and Narrator in James Joyce’s Counterparts
Author(s):Rubina Rahman a, Amtul Hafeez b a Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan b Department of Higher Education, Punjab, Pakistan

Abstract :

This paper analyses James Joyce’s short story Counterparts from the perspective of the narrator and the concept of focalization. The paper begins by giving a brief theoretical exposition of the two terms ‘narrator’ and ‘focalization’ and proceeds to examine the text in its natural narrative sequence. Joyce’s skilful manipulation of focalization as a narrative tool takes the reader on a journey through the protagonist’s private thoughts and feelings as the events in the story unfold. The focalization keeps on shifting as the action advances in its temporal and spatial parameters. The reader gets a glimpse into the consciousness of the main character as encapsulated in the narrative leading to multiple cognitive interpretations.
8) Bendrix, not Sarah: Transfiguration vs. Apotheosis
Author(s):Shazia Ghulam Mohammada, Atteq ur Rahmanb a College of Home Economics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. b Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

Though The End of the Affair brings Sarah’s name to the forefront, it is Bendrix’s character that makes her more fascinating for the readers. Sarah’s sainthood evolves out of Bendrix’s insatiable love for her. For Sarah’s journey towards divinity, Bendrix proves the first and last ladder. His radiating and jealous love for Sarah remains alive even after her death. It is he who suffers in Sarah’s love before and after her death. He seems to be paying the cost of Sarah’s divinity. As his object of love is not around so he has to express his love for Sarah in hate and jealousy against God. There is no hypocrisy in Bendrix since he confesses openly what he feels and why he feels so. This paper presents a deconstruction of Bendrix’s character in order to validate our point that Sarah wins divinity at the cost of Bendrix’s suffering. His love, jealousy and hatred foreground the sainthood of Sarah.
9) Voice Onset Time (VOT) for Voiceless Plosives in Pashto (L1) and English (L2)
Author(s):Nasir Abbas Syed Department of English Language & Literature, Lasbela University, Baloshistan

Abstract :

This is a study of voicing onset time for Pashto (L1) and English (L2) plosives with focus on acquisition of English plosives by adult Pashtoon learners. VOT for Pashto and English plosives were measured in carrier sentences. The results show that the overall direction of increase in the VOT for plosives in Pashto and English is from labial to coronal to velar but Pashto retroflex [ʈ] does not accord with this directionality. No influence of adjacent vowels on VOT of the preceding stops is noticed. The learners equate aspirated and unaspirated allophones of English labial /p/ and coronal /t/ with the corresponding L1 sounds neutralizing the aspiration contrast in the English plosives. However, they have separate phonetic representations for the allophones [k kh] of English velar stop /k/. The findings of this study pose a challenge for feature model (Brown 1998, 2000) which predicts that a new L2 feature cannot be acquired by adult L2 learners whereas the participants of this study have acquired the feature [spread glottis] by developing two separate phonetic representations for the two allophones of English velar stop.
10) Community Based Natural Resource Management in Roghani Valley, Northern Pakistan
Author(s):Iffat Tabassum, Fazlul Haq, Fazlur-Rahman Institute of Geography, Urban & Regional Planning, University of Peshawar

Abstract :

Facing the scarcity of natural resources, high environmental risks and threats, and undependable accessibility, most of the mountain communities have evolved indigenous sustenance strategies through adaptations. Adaptation is a two-way process either adapting human demands according to resource limitations or amending the resources according to the rising human needs and wants. Such adaptations make them able to cope with the growing gap between the productivity of natural resources and the demands of increasing number of dependent users. The present study is an attempt to investigate the indigenous resource management and utilization mechanisms in a mountainous community located in Dir district northern Pakistan. The study is based on qualitative information collected through interviews and focused group discussion. Like most parts of the northern mountainous belt of Pakistan, the resources are kept and managed under locally introduced ownership system in the study area as well. The inhabitants have evolved self-administered institutions for managing resources and there is no interference from the state authorities.
11) Autobiography and Woman Empowerment: Tehmina Durrani’s My Feudal Lord
Author(s):Najia Asrar Zaidi Department of English Literature, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan

Abstract :

Autobiography has become an ideal vehicle to convey women’s issues and experiences. This genre is also chosen by women to express their deference and resistance. This paper critically examines the autobiography of Tehmina Durrani ‘My feudal Lord’. Durrani’s biography throws light on the institution of marriage and family that are thoroughly embedded in cultural practices. It is a regular biography following a chronological order and the last part brings out the changes occurring in her personality. The author blames patriarchy, feudalism and cultural norms for women’s oppression. Therefore, Durrani acts to discover herself when she decides to reject a life with a husband who mistreats and degrades her. Under terrible pressures, she struggles to become independent and pushes through to regain self-esteem and living fulfilment. By writing about her own life, Durrani has not only challenged the prescribed behavioural patterns but also gives vent to her angered feelings and finally comes out of the long silence indicating that she has an agency to confess and protest.

Volume No. XXI

Issue No. 3

December