The Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences

1) Volume XIX, No. 2, 2011
Author(s):Editor Mujib Rahman, PhD (Edinburgh) Department of English & Applied Linguistics University of Peshawar Office Secretary Muhammad Altaf

Abstract :

The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS), a refereed and internationally indexed journal recognised by the HEC, is published biannually by the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of Peshawar, with the approval of the competent authority. No part of the material published in this journal be reproduced, reprinted, or copied without the prior permission of the editor.
2) Globalizing Comparative Literature
Author(s):Saiyma Aslam Department of English, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract :

Travelling of ideas, trends, movements and people is a reality of the age of globalization. With the publication of ‘Travelling Theory’ by Edward Said (1983), the concept of travel or travelling theories has achieved immense importance and recognition in various disciplines. This paper aims to explore the potential the ‘Travelling Theory’ offers in globalizing comparative literature. It investigates whether the travelling theory holds promise for destabilizing Eurocentric Canon and expanding the frontiers of comparative literature. It explores the mechanics involved in fast dissemination of theories to suggest that comparative literature has indeed become global. It also highlights the forces which delimit dissemination of comparative literature written in regional languages at an international level. The article suggests, as central to discussions in globalizing comparative literature, the need to initiate polyvalent dialogue from various geographical, cultural, ideological, racial and religious contexts, strengthening the commonalities and celebrating the differences in an atmosphere of mutual indebtedness for a noble cause of peaceful living.
3) Risk Factors Associated with Stillbirths in Public-Hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan
Author(s):Sareer Badshaha, Linda Masonb, Paulo J.G. Lisboac a Department of Statistics, Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan b School of Applied Community & Social Studies, John Moore University, Li

Abstract :

Stillbirth is considered one of the most important maternal and pregnancy health and healthcare indicators. This study investigates the association of stillbirth with a wide range of factors related to geo-demographics, maternal health and pregnancy history in public hospitals at Peshawar, Pakistan. Data on geo-demographics, maternal health indicators, pregnancy history and outcome scores for new-born babies and their families (n=1039) were collected prospectively in a cross-sectional survey of four public hospitals in Peshawar. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were used to investigate the factors associated with stillbirth. The stillbirth rate was found to be 78.5 per 1000 births. The factors independently associated with stillbirth were maternal age (≥35years), paternal illiteracy, consanguinity, maternal height (<1.55 cm), congenital malformation and caesarean delivery. However, three factors (paternal education, congenital malformations and caesarean delivery) were highly associated with stillbirth (p<0.0001). In addition to congenial malformation and caesarean delivery, this study highlights the importance of paternal education regarding stillbirth rate in this area. The effect of paternal illiteracy on stillbirth might be due to its strong association with low family social-status, deprived area of residence, and maternal health conditions.
4) Impact of Inflation and Interest Rate on Stock Return
Author(s):Amir Hussaina and Muhammad Junaid Khanb a Institute of Management Studies, University of Peshawar, Pakistan b IM-Sciences, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

The research undertaken analyses short run influence of inflation and interest rate on stock returns in Pakistan. Inflation was represented by “CPI”, interest rate by “I” and stock return by “KSE100”. Monthly data comprised of 45 observations from 1 July 2005 to 1 April 2009 was taken. Simple and Multiple regression models have been used for the estimation of coefficients. The empirical results show that there is significant relationship between the stock price interest rates and inflation. Moreover inflation is negatively related with stock prices while interest rate is positively related with the stock prices. So it can be concluded that in short- run the impact of inflation on stock returns is negative while positive in case of interest rate.
5) Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Personality Traits: A relationship Study
Author(s):Erum Irshad, Summaira Naz Department of Psychology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and personality traits among employees of AW (Air Weapon Complex), Second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees. In present study three instrument; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997), Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) (Mowday, Steer, & Porter, 197), and Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) (Rentfrow, Gosling & Swann, 2003); were administered to a sample of (N=100) along with demographic sheet. Results of the study revealed significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees; significant negative association of neuroticism with job satisfaction and organizational commitment; extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness showed significant positive correlation with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Findings of the study also showed significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences on job satisfaction and organizational commitment as all these demographic variables were positive correlates of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
6) Is Cooperative Microfinance1 a Myth or Reality? An Economic Analysis of the Welfare of Marginalized Segments
Author(s):Zahoor Khana, Hafiz Muhammad Yasinb & Asmat Ullahc a Department of Economics, Unuiversity of Peshawar, Pakistan b Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakista

Abstract :

The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of the Islamic Cooperative Microfinance program (Murabah’ah 2) on the standard of life of the poor and the marginalized segments of the society. The Islamic microfinance program of the Islamic Relief-Pakistan was taken as a model of cooperative microfinance. A sample of 100 clients along with a control group of 25 respondents was selected randomly so as to avoid selection bias. The socio-economic impact of the said programs on the poor marginalized groups was evaluated by two Binary logistic models. The first model is based on respondents’ perception regarding the overall welfare, while the second model is based on standardized consumption expenditure, used as a proxy for welfare in quantitative term. Findings of the study suggest that the Cooperative microfinance program has a positive impact on the overall welfare of the clients. This is also reflected in the empirical investigation which reveals that standardized consumption expenditure as a proxy for well-being (welfare) of the clients represents a more appropriate picture as compared to the welfare model based on respondent perceptions only. The results suggest that the respondents who avail the facility of the cooperative microfinance are approximately 10 times more likely to increase their welfare as compared to non-clients. We propose that by expanding the facility of the cooperative microfinance by sensitizing the poor and the marginalized
7) A Review of Kabul River Uses and Its Impact on Fish and Fishermen
Author(s):Mohammad Nafees, Tanzeel Ahmed & Maria Arshad Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

In this paper a detailed account of Kabul River has been given to highlight the socioeconomic importance related to fish decline in Kabul River. Kabul River is a major river of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Its water is widely used for irrigation in Peshawar, Nowshera and Charsadda Districts. At the same time it receives wastewater directly from various industries situated in the mentioned district. This induction of waste water has deteriorated water quality and adversely affected aquatic flora and fauna in which fish is of major economic importance. This study shows that Kabul River enormously contributes in economic prosperity but the deterioration of water quality hampers the growth of fish population. On the whole there are nine species of fish, which are of immense economic importance and whose population is sharply declined. Pollution and over fishing are the two main causes of this decline. The collective contribution of pollution and pesticides is above 60% while that of illegal fishing mainly through electric current and dynamite is 25% and only 15% is due to legal fishing. Pollution and illegal fishing are considered as the major threats to fish decline. Therefore, both preventive and curative measures are recommended.
8) The Rise of Religious Politics in Pakistan: A Case Study of October 2002 Elections in the NWFP (KP)
Author(s):Abdul Raufa and Mohammad Ayazb a Department of Political Science, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan b Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan

Abstract :

The impressive gains of the six-piece religious party alliance, the MMA (Muttahida Majlis-i-Aml), in October 2002 Elections in Pakistan represent a mass mobilization in the name of Islam on a scale not seen since the creation of Pakistan. The theory of ‘Islam in danger' was raised both against foreign, i.e., American neo-imperialism and against what were seen as ‘un-Islamic forces’ within the society. The concept of political Islam and its manipulation by the Isalmists stirred the political will of the masses. October 2002 polls marks the ever first time experience of the NWFP (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), at least in the post-independence period, where a pre-electoral religio-political parties’ alliance (the MMA) ruled the province with apparently no threat from the central government. The replacement of political forces/parties in certain regions (dominating by them since 1937) with relatively inexperienced religious leaders, unexposed to modern western education required the attention of all the stakeholders, including the international actors, now very active in the region. In this paper, we try to look into and analyse religion, politics and ethnicity with particular reference to the causes of and factors for the success of the MMA in the Pakthtun dominated areas in Pakistan.
9) Postcolonial Loss of Identity and the Food Metaphor: Contemporary Indo-Pak Women Writers
Author(s):Shazia Sadaf, Mujib Rahman Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract :

Most postcolonial texts document a loss of identity, and a struggle to regain a lost self. Of all the devices used to explore this personal domain, the metaphor of food is the most potent and intimate. This paper aims to examine four books written by authors from the Indian Sub-continent that centre on identity issues in the wake of colonisation on various levels. In particular, it traces the food metaphor throughout the texts, looking for parallels in thought and expression. The striking similarity of a culinary vocabulary across these writings is a revelation in the understanding of the postcolonial predicament.
10) Images of Horror in the Plays of Tennessee Williams
Author(s):Irshad Ahmad Tabasum a, Qabil Khan b a Govt. Post Graduate College, Bahawalpur, Pakistan b Department of English, University of Management and Technology, Lahore

Abstract :

The world portrayed by Tennessee Williams is replete with hectic hysteria, repression, deception, sickness, sterility, insanity, castration, cannibalism and lynching. The forces of sterility dominate and castrate the forces of vitality and life. Ethnic intolerance can also be observed in some of his plays. The brutes hold their sway by bullying and beguiling methods, and they do not let love, affection and personal freedom take their roots. Here, life becomes a struggle for survival and longing for domesticity leads to despondency. The recurrent themes of mental instability, insanity, asylum and suicide are a direct comment on the horrors and anarchy of the age, maimed and mutilated by selfishness and brutality. Williams’ plays deal with the spiritual anarchy resulting from the social anarchy. He portrays a dark and barren world where every effort to beautify and humanize it turns into a nightmare. He portrays an irredeemable world with its dying and disintegrating civilization. His threatened figures find themselves in a brutal society. They try their best to sustain themselves with the power of their will and imagination but fail in their efforts.
11) Pakistan’s Stance on War on Terror and its Treatment in the National Press
Author(s):Farish Ullah Yousafzai a, Kasim Sharif b a Dept. of Mass Communication, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan b Dept. of Comm. & Media Studies, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pak

Abstract :

After the 9/11 incident, the U.S declared war against terrorism under the umbrella of the U.N Security Council resolution. Almost the entire Western World and some Asian states militarily joined the war. Pakistan also joined the war, extending considerable military and non-military support to the U.S. At the beginning, there was a series of protests against the government decision but it could not change the direction of the government policy in this regard. The situation in the Pakistani print media was not so different. Both hard and soft news stories appeared in the press severely opposed the government stance. But when the Pakistani cities became the victim of acts of terrorism, a sharp shift in the press policy towards the government stance was observed. This study has examined the Pakistani press approach towards the government stance on war on terror. The positive, neutral and negatives frames were applied to analyse the content published in the two dailies — the Nation and the Business Recorder from 01 March 2008 to 28 February 2009. The content published in the two newspapers was categorized as hard news and soft news; the government and private source. Moreover, the study compared the coverage of the two selected dailies that which one is more supportive to the government stance. It was found that the press is overall supportive to the government stance and comparatively the Business Recorder has published more material in favour of the stance ta

Volume No. XIX

Issue No. 2

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