Ancient Pakistan

1) Unique Terracotta Figurine from Singoor, District Chitral, Pakistan: Contextualizing Possible Hariti Figurine in the Buddhist Wilderness?
Author(s):Muhammad Zahir

Abstract :

The archaeology and history of District Chitral in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, is not very well understood in terms of major historical events and the character of its relationships with surrounding regions in South Asia and beyond. In fact, systematic archaeological research has recently started in Chitral, which suggests close linkages between Chitral and north-western Pakistan, particularly within the context of protohistoric cemeteries. Though Buddhism was a major phenomenon during the 1st millennium CE in most of north-western Pakistan and adjoining areas of Central Asia, Trans-Pamir region and China, there are very scarce evidence of Buddhism in Chitral, leading to suggestion of Chitral as being a ‘backwater’ of Buddhism in South Asia. The finding of a unique terracotta female figurine from Singoor village, Chitral, throws light on this interesting period of Chitral history and its relationships with Gandharan Buddhism. The present paper investigates the Singoor terracotta figurine and contextualizes it within the wider geographical, archaeological and historical contexts of Chitral and the surrounding region. The chaîne opératoire of the construction technology of the terracotta figurine revealed complex construction processes and choices made during the construction of the figurine and its linkage with possible religious ideologies. The paper suggests that the construction and style of the figurine is linked with the terracotta figurines from protohi
2) A Brief Account on an Inscribed Relic Casket from Marjānai, Swāt
Author(s):Nidaullah Sehrai and Alia Jawad

Abstract :

The reliquary along with an inscribed lid is found in 1982 at the Buddhist stupa of Marjanai in the Swat Valley. These days, the analyses of the relics and the inscriptions inscribed upon them, have become an interesting field of study. Here the main purpose of the study is to bring to limelight the inscription and identify the name of the person, possibly whose relics it contained and to provide further an opportunity to the researcher to study & analyse the contents of the relics and find out further information in the historical records about the local rulers.
3) Contextualizing Buddhism: Exploring the Limits of Buddhist Survivability in High Altitude Valleys in District Mansehra, Pakistan
Author(s):Shakirullah, Junaid Ahmad and Haq Nawaz

Abstract :

Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, being located on the ancient Silk Route has played an instrumental role in the ancient trade, commerce and development of Buddhism as well. The region is a pivot between the China and Central Asia. Asoka recognized it in the 3rd century BC by carving 14 edicts here, and became central to the spread of Buddhism to Central Asia and China. It has been revealed that no Buddhist site existed at altitude of 2000 meter and above, equally not mentioned in Buddhist narratives. Recent archaeological explorations exposed hundreds of Buddhist sites in the region revealing the survivability and availability of Buddhist sites mainly on the trade routes. This paper systematically explores the existence of Buddhist monuments in Mansehra coping with natural and cultural landscapes.
4) Buddhist Complex of Nimogram Swat, Pakistan: Its History, Classification, Analysis and Chronology
Author(s):Badshah Sardar

Abstract :

This research paper is focused on a very rare and important collection of large scale artefacts (467 stone images, 43 stucco pieces, 05 copper coins and 02 relic caskets) excavated from the site of Nimogram Swat. Single figures of Buddha, Bodhisattvas, narrative reliefs, decorative and architectural elements, and containers for relics associated with Gandhara religious architecture are all well represented in the collection. The antiquities discovered from the salvage excavations of Nimogram Buddhist complex were neither studied scientifically nor documented properly. Only one preliminary report published by the Department of Archaeology & Museums Government of Pakistan in 1968, no precise study has so for been conducted. Despite the artistic beauty of these sculptures and the high reputation of the site in the Gandhara region, except for a preliminary report no information is available for general public or scholars. As such, bulks of artefacts are damped and out of approach of any research. To trace the history of the collection, classify it based on style, analyse it for the subject matter, kind of material and workout its chronology by correlating it to the already established sequence of the Swat valley sites i.e. Butkara-I (Faccenna 1980-81), Saidu Sharif Stupa (Callieri 1989), Butkara III (Rahman 1990 & 1991), Shnaisha Gumbat (Rahman 1993) and Panr Stupa (Faccenna, Nizar Khan & Nadiem 1993). The main object of this paper is to examine directly the Nimogram collection
5) The Tomb of Meer Buzerg at Barkhan, Balochistan: History and Architecture
Author(s):Shakir Naseer, Waheed Razzaq and Ghulam Farooq Baloch

Abstract :

District Barkhan is one of the neglected regions of Balochistan in terms of archeological and ethnological investigation, in which it is very rich. Recently in 2013, an exploratory team of Balochistan Study Center, University of Balochistan made a three-day archaeological exploration in Barkhan to record archaeological sites and monuments. Apart from other discoveries, the team also discovered an Islamic Period tomb. But proper documentation was carried out later on by the principal author. The tomb is situated in a small town about 15 km south west of Barkhan city. This is a 17th century tomb erected by the Mughal ruler Jahangir to entomb one of his brave generals who passed away while going to Kandahar. The history of this long march has been written by a Hindu historian Raie Bahadur Lala Aturam in his famous book Tarikh-e-Balochistan in 1903. He has also mentioned this tomb and the information pertaining to the buried personage. Architecturally this monument is octagon in plain. The octagonal architecture resembles the Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan with its architectural elements as well the tombs of Lal Mara Sharif in DI Khan, Uchchh Sharif in Bahawalpur, and other pre-eminent Muslim Architectural shrines of Pakistan.
6) Miniature Painters as Historiographers
Author(s):Kanwal Khalid

Abstract :

Artists are an integral part of the society and they have their own way of telling the history through their art works. For present research, five paintings have been selected that represent a unique way of telling the contemporary events of the troubled period of Sikh Rule, which have become a history now. But this has been done in such a subtle manner that it almost goes unnoticed. In current research the paintings will be studied not only from artistic perspective, but it will also deal with the socio political and historical dimensions present in paintings.
7) Derawar through the Ages: A Military and Dynastic History
Author(s):Samia Khalid

Abstract :

Once Derawar was included in the most important strategic locations within the desert of Cholistan. Its legendary fort was centre stage amid the Rajput and Daudputras rivalries during eighteenth century. Its geo-strategic position at the centre of the Cholistan desert made it a sanctuary for various rulers and their treasure hoards thus prompting the rulers of Jaisalmeer and Bahawalpur States to acquire it and turn it into state capital. Moreover, situated at the crossroad of caravanserais to Central Asia, Persia and Arabia, the town also attained an economic significance. This paper will focus on the history of Derawar and its renowned fort, how and why it became the much coveted prize and centre of historic battlefields in this region, and how it gradually lost its significance due to the dramatic political changes brought about by the appearance of the British in the local politics of this realm.
8) Two Rare Large-Size Qajar Paintings from a Private Collection in Lahore
Author(s):Rifaat Saif Dar

Abstract :

Present abstract is about two rare large size paintings, each possibly forming a front and back cover of a bookbinding belonging to Early Qajar Period or, what is more probable, a pair of portrait paintings of two Qajar Emperors used as a wall hanging side by side. These paintings are at present in a private collection in Lahore. Both are of the same format and size each measure 44.5 x 30 cm. One of the folios (Painting I) contains a portrait of the founder of the Qajar dynasty i.e. Sultan Fateh Ali Shah (1797 - 1834) along with some of his family members including two crown-wearing ladies. The second folio or Painting II shows the portrait figure of his nephew and successor Qajar Sultan Muhammad Shah (1834- 1848). Like predecessors, this King is also shown surrounded by a group of people – all male- either his courtiers or family members. Both the kings are identifiable with their names inscribed each in the form of tughra set inside a medallion with outlines in relief. Although the name of the artist is not known but there is no doubt that both have been rendered by one and the same artist. The paintings have been rendered on a base of thick cardboard with rounded corners. The actual paintings are done in a mixed media of plaster or gypsum (gesso) mixed with oil colors and finally varnished/ lacquered. The colors are dusky and dark due to the application of varnish. Back side of both paintings are plain but painted in brick-red color and varnished/lacquered.
9) Khem Bedi Singh Haveli at Kallar Sayedan Rawalpindi, Center of Socio Cultural and Religious Activities
Author(s):Samina Saleem

Abstract :

This research paper is a kind of a case study of a residential building almost 200 years old, which has not been documented. Such building complexes were not only used for residential purpose, but also for some kind of religious or social significance in Subcontinent. They are commonly known as Havelies, a Sanskrit word for a Residential palace like structure for the Elite of the area. It has been discussed in detail that these kinds of buildings (Havelies) commonly had other structures attached to the residence in the same boundary, like stables, guard rooms, worship areas and sometimes graveyards. This specific Haveli or Mansion is so rich and fascinating in its architectural style and art of Mural painting that it not only tells us about the religious stories from Hindu Epics, but also of Sikh Gurus and stories from the life of the Maharajas (kings) of India. The wood work in the building is also very intricate especially doors and windows are carved with floral and geometrical designs. The architectural style used in this Havelies is a combination of Hindu and Mughal building style. The technique used in Murals is Fresco. The general condition is deteriorating. The main objective to document this Haveli is to take the attention of the authorities for the restoration and preservation of such buildings, which are dying or vanishing with the passage of time and because of the negligence of the Archaeology Department and Ministry of Culture and Heritage. This building is comm
10) The Tomb of Doda Baba at Nawagai in the Light of Fresh Evidence
Author(s):Lutf-ur Rahman

Abstract :

Doda Baba’s tomb is situated in Nawagae, Bajaur Agency. Owing to lack of historical and inscriptional evidence, Doda Baba was an unknown person. However, a couple of inscription have been discovered, related to ‘Doda Baba’, which has thrown sufficient light on the identity of the saint.
11) Wooden Architecture of Kashmir under Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin
Author(s):Rameez Ahmad Padder

Abstract :

It is a brief account of various buildings especially of wood erected mainly during the time of Sultan Zain ul Abidin, who ruled Kashmir. During his reign, Kashmir became a centre of Islamic culture, architecture, arts and crafts. He provided patronage to artist and artisan class for the promotion of local style (Kashmiri) of Islam art. The wooden buildings stand supreme and speak the glory of the age, which are being highlighted here.
12) The Yusufzais Before Their Expulsion from the Kabul Valley
Author(s):Abdur Rahman and Fazal Sher

Abstract :

This research is related to the history of the Yusaufzai branch of the Pakhtun or Pushtun tribe, who once occupied the Kabul Valley in Afghanistan. Currently they occupy a large tract of land in the plain of modern Peshawar valley but they were originally expelled from Afghanistan. Their original place and subsequent occupation of different regions have been thoroughly discussed here.
13) The Emerging Tochi-Gomal Cultural Phase in the Gomal Plain, Northwest Pakistan
Author(s):Saira Naseem and Zakirullah Jan

Abstract :

The article is related briefly to a cultural phase that appeared exclusively in the Bannu Basin and Dera Ismail Khan region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in northwestern Pakistan, at the end of Neolithic Age. Typological and chronological sequence suggests that the Tochi-Gomal Phase co-existed for a certain period with other contemporaneous regional cultures of South Asia such as the Ravi (Ravi-Hakra) Phase in the Punjab; Amri - Nal culture in Sindh; Togau & Kechi Beg Phases in Baluchistan and Sothi- Siswal culture in Rajasthan, India. Although reported earlier in 1970s, no proper attention is paid to this cultural phase of the Tochi-Gomal as a separate unit having its own distinctive features. Here in this paper, the diagnostic features are highlighted for identification as well as understanding its pivotal role it played in the emergence of urbanization in South Asia.
14) The Evolution of Mankind: A Gigantic Mural by Sadeqauin
Author(s):Rabia Chishti, Salma Naz, Zile Huma Mujeeb & Imrana Seemi

Abstract :

The present paper aims to study the figurative language of the gigantic mural ‘The Evolution of Mankind’ painted by the great modern painter Sadequain Ahmed Naqvi at Lahore Museum, Lahore. The paper analyzes the distinctive features of the mural that are specific to Sadequain’s own style and thus provide a background to understand his ideology and metamorphosed images.
15) Еffеct of Job Rewards on Job Satisfaction: Empirical Еvidеncе from Public Educational Sector, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Author(s):Samina Yasmeen and Muhammad Majid Mahmood

Abstract :

The purpose of this paper is to study the public educational institution towards job rewards and job satisfaction of the teachers. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of job rewards on satisfaction level of teachers in different schools. It focuses on the relative importance of job rewards factors and their impact on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of еmployееs (teachers). The result shows that there is an indirect relationship between job rewards and job performance and are negatively co-related. The school teachers are at negative level of intrinsic rewards overall. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone great change for the schools. The data was collected from public schools of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Total samples of 2 schools were sеlеctеd randomly. The questionnaire was used as a data gathering technique. The questionnaire includes 49 items. The questionnaire encompasses of four parts; job rewards, intrinsic rewards, extrinsic rewards, job satisfaction and organizational commitments. The data was analyzed by using statistical procedures and reprеsеntеd in the form of tables.

Volume No. XXVII

Issue No. 1

Research Bulletin of Department of Archaeology
University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
 
ISSN: 0066-1600
 
Year of Publication of Ancient Pakistan Vol. XXVII, 2016
 
© Editor, Ancient Pakistan