Ancient Pakistan

1) Three Seasons of Excavations at Pir Manakrai, Haripur: Preliminary Report
Author(s):Saifur Rahman Dar and Zakirullah Jan

Abstract :

It is a brief and preliminary report of the archaeological probing conducted at the important site of Pir Manakrai in Haripur District by National Heritage Foundation (NHF) headed by Late Prof. F.A. Durrani. The main aim of this report is to highlight the significance of the site and region and to understand the socio-religious and socio-cultural elements of early historic period society. The detail report will be published later on.
2) Sculptural Portraits, Artistic Traditions of Ancient Lahore
Author(s):Kanwal Khalid

Abstract :

There is not much of evidence available regarding the ancient city of Lahore. History is shrouded in mystery and the archaeological evidence is almost non-existent. In this scenario of scarcity of evidence, it’s almost a miracle when we come across some visual evidence related to this period, no matter how meagre it is. Current research is based on such specimens, which were acquired through very unconventional methods but they are important enough not to be ignored. These are the small sized sculptural heads of terracotta discovered not during some formal excavation but by digging the earth few meters deeper than usual. The detailed study of these objects not only confirms their antiquity but it also reveals the fine aesthetics and high level of skill involved.
3) Relief Panel Depicting Buddha Protected by Naga Muchilinda
Author(s):Nidaullah Sehrai and Alia Jawad

Abstract :

After enlightenment, Buddha is said to have been protected from severe flood and storm by Nāga Muchilinda, near Bodh Gaya. Nāgas are spirits of rivers and ponds. The event is depicted on Sanchi stupa where Nāga is depicted in human form with hoods behind head of Buddha under a tree symbolic representation of Buddha. At Amaravati Buddha footprints are depicted upon coiled and scaly body of a snake. The same scene is also depicted at Gaya in which Buddha is seated on the coiled body of Nāga. In Gandhāra, the Buddha is coiled by the Nāga and its seven hoods are protecting him from rain. The concept of representation is more protective as compared to the other. In Gandhāra when Nāgas are in physical and verbal contact with Buddha are represented as a snake. But when paying homage to Buddha they are shown in human form with hood emerging behind the head. The concept of Nāgas in human form is perhaps to convey the idea of submission or adoration to the worshipper which is a human quality and not of snakes/serpents or the ancient belief found in the Indo- Pak sub-continent that the snakes have the power to transform themselves into human beings.
4) Ancient Architecture of Pakistan: A Case Study of Palaces as Depicted in Gandhara Art
Author(s):Tauqeer Ahmad, Samia Tahir and Zain-ul Wahab

Abstract :

Although, Gandhara art by theme as well as subject matter is an expression of Buddhist ideals and aspirations. However, along with The Lords' jataka events and stories and presentation of last birth in stone Gandhara art also carries a lot of cultural wealth relating to the people who produced it. Particularly, the secular architecture including forts, gateways fortifications of the cities and palaces are also depicted in the sculptures and reliefs. In this research, the authors have analysed the characteristic elements and features of palace buildings sculpted in Gandhara art. Predominantly, the frontal depiction of palaces shows that they are designed according to tripartite concept and are richly decorated by applying different architectural traditions which has been discussed in detail in the following pages.
5) Scythian Art in Gandhara: A Case Study of the so-called Gold Girdle from Pattan (Kohistan)
Author(s):Muhammad Hameed

Abstract :

Among innumerable finds and antiquities discovered from Gandhara, the gold girdle from Pattan, Kohistan is exceptional and incomparable. It is not only valuable in term of metal but also equally significant for the sophisticated iconography, never witnessed in Gandhara before. The profusely decorated and carved gold girdle, under discussion, is the perfect example of the animal style, usually associated with Scythians. The main focus on the present paper is to make comprehensive examination of the animal iconography by making comparative analysis with the archaeological evidences from Eurasian Steppes. In the end some aspects related to study of the gold girdle, its proposed function, dating and impact on Gandharan artistic traditions will also be discussed.
6) Harappan Cultural Elements in South Indian Cultures – Studying Aftermath of the Harappan Decline in South India
Author(s):Tawseef Ahmad Mir

Abstract :

Decline of great Indus tradition is an unfortunate truth and theories for decline are numerous. There is a debate on the decline that goes on but at the same time we are preoccupied with other facets of this civilization, interesting among them is the aftermath of decline i.e. inquiring into the question as to which way people migrated and more importantly trace the path they followed and to see what impact they have left on the cultures of the region they visited. This paper is an attempt in that direction. Here we search for Harappans in the South India and see how they have reshaped the cultural milieu of the land and represent themselves in the cultural ethos and ideas, even today.
7) A Short Note on the Indigenous and Western Architectural Traditions in the Buildings of Islamia College Peshawar
Author(s):Imrana Seemi, Zakirullah Jan, Zil-e-Huma Mujeeb, Shabana Rafiq

Abstract :

Peshawar, being located on the cross-road between central and south Asia, has emerged to be a city of diverse cultural traditions, religious philosophies and multiple ethnicities. Owing to this strategic location it has been one of the earliest living cities of south Asia since last two thousand years, as shown by the archaeological record (Durrani, Ali & Rehman, 1997). Because of the frequent interaction with outside cultures, the art and architecture in Peshawar got developed with new traditions and elements. In addition to the glorious art of Gandhara and the Islamic, the colonial art and architecture is also noteworthy that flourished in this part of the British Empire apart from Kolkata, Mumbai and Lahore. One of the notable architectural structures of that age is building of Islamia College Peshawar that speaks the grandeur of the British Raj, which is described briefly in this paper. Architectural elements used in the Islamia College building are dexterously borrowed from eastern and western sources. They are used in terms of symbolism and style as the rationale of attraction and utility. Local elements are considerably used such as dome, arches, niches etc to enhance beauty of the building. The universal language of geometrical form and symmetrical pattern, with red brick colour in rough texture add harmony of vision to architecture that is a splendid eastern style. The British conceptualized and designed the architecture to represent noticeably the new
8) Education in the Ancient Greek Civilization—Lessons from the Past
Author(s):Habib Elahi Sahibzada, Shakirullah and Sadaf Naz

Abstract :

Looking into the past for framing the prospects of a bright and happy future is always decided in the present. Despite its significance, the present is always dependent on the lessons learned from the past. This is true in every aspect of the human life; hence, education system is no exception to this rule. Today, every education system is subservient to the history of education. Therefore, for a better tomorrow, the human family needs to peep into the past, and mould the future in the light of the human experiences. With this philosophical approach the present study is carried out to explore the nature and structure of the education system of the ancient Greek Civilization with a view to extract some lessons from the past for the modern era. The objectives are to highlight the philosophical approach of the ancient Greeks towards the: aims, curriculum, methodology, and learning environment in their system of education; and to pinpoint the practicable lessons for the 21st century globalized context. The methodology adopted for the study is historical cum analytical. The most authentic sources were consulted to explore the very nature and structure of the education system of the ancient Greeks including such factors as the: aims, curriculum, methodology, and learning environment. After thorough investigation some pertinent lessons in the form of recommendations for the 21st century are also presented as a conclusion.
9) Archaeological Survey in Jhalawan (Khuzdar) Balochistan: A Preliminary Note
Author(s):Ghulam Farooq Baloch, Shakir Naseer and Waheed Razaq

Abstract :

The significance of this article is to elaborate the archaeological and historical sites of District Khuzdar where a survey was conducted by the team of Balochistan Study Centre, University of Balochistan, Quetta. The purpose and objective of this work is to express and show the information in relation to Khuzdar and to bring out the present condition of these historic sites to be documented. The research paper will focus on the major archaeological and historical sites of the Khuzdar District and will discuss the present critical condition of this cultural heritage. Khuzdar is one of the most popular archaeological areas of Balochistan. The most important feature of this part of Balochistan is that, it has always been occupied and ruled by invaders from the inception. The present paper discusses the cultural importance of the area of Khuzdar. The study is descriptive in nature and both primary and secondary sources were consulted in this regard; the field survey is also included in this work.
10) A Note on Some Cultural Objects from District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Author(s):Mir Muhammad Khan and Asim Amin

Abstract :

Modern town of Charsadda was the capital of ancient Gandhara where a series of historical events occurred. This city played a vital role in the emergence of second phase of urbanization in South Asia. Charsadda witnessed the vistas of Achamanid to the post-colonial periods on its soil. Less in number the antiquity found through archaeological investigation however, more found accidentally which helped scholars to understand the past culture of Pushkalavati. The paper deals with certain cultural objects that were found from different villages such as Khanmahi, Sardheri and Charsadda city.
11) Malik Ahmad: Life and Times (Part-II)
Author(s):Abdur Rahman, Fazal Sher and Shakirullah

Abstract :

This article is about the life and times of Malik Ahmad, a chief of the Yusufzai Pakhtuns. Since it is a long history of the chief so it has been divided into three parts. Here the 2nd part is focused whereas the first and third are published elsewhere.
12) The Potters of Musazai, Peshawar and their Pottery Making Techniques
Author(s):Rabia Chishti, Zile Huma Mujeeb and Imrana Seemi

Abstract :

Peshawar earthenware pottery is a popular craft of its own kind and has given us international recognition. Especially, the village of Musazai is the main pottery production centre in the district. The potters locally known as “kulal” work hard day and night. The adult male potters are mainly responsible for the production of large pots but they work with the support and full involvement of their other family members as well. These potters use pit wheels and traditional techniques of pottery making that have been passed down from generation to generation.

Volume No. XXVI

Issue No. 1

Research Bulletin of Department of Archaeology
University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
 
ISSN: 0066-1600
 
Year of Publication of Ancient Pakistan Vol. XXVI, 2015
 
© Editor, Ancient Pakistan