Peshawar Islamicus (ISSN: 2305-154X)

1) طلاقِ تعسّف شریعتِ اسلامیہ اور معاصر قوانین کی روشنی میں
Author(s):محی الدین ہاشمی

Abstract :

There has been a consensus among Muslim jurists regarding the right of divorce that it belongs to husband. Anyhow, this right has not been considered as an absolute & unconditional one; rather, it has to be exercised only in exceptional & real hardship situations. So it would be an abuse of right & an unlawful act if this right is exercised without a justified reason. Consequently, the person committing this abuse should be liable to compensate the damage caused by his action (whether the damage is of physical & marital nature or of mental & psychological nature). Muslim jurists have named this kind of abuse as “═al┐q al-ta‘assuf”. Different opinions of Muslim jurists have been analyzed in this article with the suggestion that the matter, being signification in nature especially in contemporary scenario, needs serious consideration for framing appropriate laws to safeguard the abuse of divorce right granted by shar┘‘ah to husband.
2) (اسباب نزول(قسط دوم
Author(s):سراج الاسلام حنیف

Abstract :

The Arabic word sabab (pl. asb┐b) means reason, cause and motive. Ma’rifah asb┐b al-nuz┴l is the knowledge about the reasons of the revelations, i.e. the knowledge about the particular events and circumstances in history that are related to the revelation of particular passages from the Qur'┐n. Knowledge about the asb┐b al-nuz┴l helps one to understand the circumstances in which a particular revelation occurred, which sheds light on its implications and gives guidance to the explanation (tafs┘r) and application of the ┐yah in question for other situations. The extent and scope of usefulness of the occasions of revelation have been a matter of contention among Muslim scholars. Some scholars overstressed their importance so much that they gave the impression that every passage of the Qur’┐n must have an occasion, while others seemed inclined to play down their usefulness and importance altogether. This article is the continuation of Part-I and further elaborates on the topic focusing on the point that only those asb┐b are to be considered which have a valid isn┐d “chain of narrators”.
3) منہج ِتحقیق اوراس کے متبادل ناموں کاتحقیقی جائزہ
Author(s):سعید الرحمن/ کریم داد

Abstract :

Research refers to any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas or develope new theories and reach new conclusions. Manhaj-e-Ta╒qeeq (Research methodology) is the study and analysis of various theories and principles which are used to systematically prepare a project. It focuses on the process and steps which are an integral part of any research activity. A sound knowledge of Manhaj-e-Ta╒qeeq is a pre-requisite and most important for research scholars to conduct an authentic and high standard Research. In Arabic and Urdu languages there are also other alternate names commonly used for the term "Manhaj-e-Ta╒qeeq" which include Manhaj al-Ba╒th Al-‘Ilmi, As┐l┘b al-Ta╒q┘q, ║uruq al Ba╒th al’Ilmi (Arabic) and Ta╒qeeq┘ ║ariqa-e-K┐r, Fan-e- Ta╒qeeq, U╖ool-e-Ta╒qeeq, Rasmiy┐t-e-Maq┐la Nig┐ri, Ta╒qeeq Nig┐ri/Maq┐la Nig┐ri and Maq┐la Naweesi (Urdu). This article briefly presents an introduction to these terms.
4) خطیب بغدادی: تعارف اورخدمات
Author(s):محمدواحدالله ايوب الازہرى، محمد رياض الازہرى، محمد فياض

Abstract :

Abu Bakr A╒mad bin ‘Ali bin Th┐bit al-Sh┐fi’i (392-463), commonly known as al-Kha═┘b al-Baghd┐di was a celebrated Sunni Muslim scholar and a historian of his age. Al-Dhahabi praised him as "the most peerless im┐m, a learned scholar and mufti, a cautious ╒ad┘th expert, scholar of his time in ╒ad┘th, prolific author, and seal of the ╒ad┘th masters." He inscribed more than 70 books, many of them remaining to our time authoritative manuals in ╒ad┘th science noted for their insight and wide scope. Ibn ╓ajar said in his introduction to Shar╒ Nukhbat al-Fikar: "There is hardly a single discipline among the sciences of ╒ad┘th in which al-Kha═┘b did not author a monograph." In this research paper an introduction to Al-Kha═┘b al- Baghd┐di and his seeking of knowledge and services in various fields of Islamic ‘Ul┴m has been presented with the hope that it will benefit the researchers and readers.
5) سیرت نگاری کا تاریخی پس منظر منتخب مآخذ کی روشنی میں
Author(s):عطاء الرحمن

Abstract :

The Prophetic biographies have been constantly inscribed since the time of the ╖a╒┐bah till present day. In accordance with the changing trends and circumstances, the s┘rah writers adopted and followed new styles and methodologies for their works. The intellectual task of collecting information about s┘rah, its compilation, and codification was brought to a successful completion till the third century AH. The following generations of s┘rah writers solely depended on them without adding something new to it, and therefore, there has been no change/ modification in this area. But as far as styles of writings, elucidations and explanations, long and short works out of the already codified s┘rah material are concerned, biographers have contributed a great deal to this area. This research paper critically examines the historiography of s┘rah literature, various methodologies and trends adopted by selected writers for writing s┘rah of the Prophet Mu╒ammad (SAW). For the sake of brevity, a model-specimen has been selected from each period.
6) قواعد فقہ کی حقیقت،اہمیت اور علمی ضرورت
Author(s):سلیم الرحمن/ نثار محمد

Abstract :

Islamic Jurisprudence deals with the applied commands/ orders regarding the unlimited problems of the whole mankind. Emergence of new issues with the passage of time is further addition to it. Demarcation, understanding and control of all these infinite problems are not only difficult, but almost impossible. To cope up with all the situations, the scholars of Islamic jurisprudence have chalked out certain rules and regulations. Proper arrangement, understanding and control of the prevailing issues become possible due to these rules and the work of derivation of the problems also becomes easy. This formulates the principles of legal maxims in general and that of certain special sect in specific, which promotes the capabilities of the skill of derivation. As a result of this process, we get a general shape of Islamic Jurisprudence. In the given article, the structure and origin of these legal maxims, their difference with the other principles and their scholastic and technical importance have been discussed.
7) مشرکین،یہود، نصاری اور مسلمانوں کے قبلے: ایک تنقیدی مطالعہ
Author(s):صالح الدین حقانی

Abstract :

The importance and significance of ╖al┐t is evident from the sayings and practice of the Prophet (SAW). One of the pre-requisits of ╖al┐t is facing towards the direction of Ka’bah (qiblah). It does not imply that Muslims worship the Ka’bah or its contents; the Ka’bah is simply a focal point for prayers. Allah (SWT) does not possess any place or location; the Qiblah is just a code for establishing unity within the Muslims and reviving the reminiscences of monotheism and so, changing it would not transform anything. The important thing is to submit to His commands and shatter the idols of ignorance, stubbornness and egotism. The following paper deeply looks into a comparative study of the history of the change of qiblahs in the creeds of Polytheists, Jews, Christians and Muslims with the argument that the qiblah determined by the Qur’an is final and based on authentic divine revelation.
8) أسباب وقوع الإشكال في القرآن الكريم (دراسة وصفية)
Author(s):ہارون الرشيد

Abstract :

Sometime it appears to a researcher that if there is a sort of contradiction and incompatibility between some verses of the Qur’an, while it has been categorically declared by Allah in the Qur’an that: “Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein many a contradiction”. (Al-Nis┐’: 82) Further Qur’an was revealed in different styles of rhetorical expressions prevalent in Arabic literature at that time, such as: metaphor, paronomasia, pun and metonymy. Whenever, the companions would come across any type of ambiguity, they would directly ask the Prophet (Peace be upon him) for clarification. But with the passage of time and because of entry of loanwords and ignorance from rhetorical sciences of Arabic, the circle of ambiguity expanded. This article narrates those reasons which lead to any type of ambiguity in correct understanding of some verses. All this has been illustrated with the examples and in the light of opinions of exegetes, scholars of ╒ad┘th, lexicologists and jurists. Some basic principles pertaining to the removal of contradiction are also elaborated at the end.
9) الشعر العربي الوارد في تفسير البحر المحيط ومحاسنه البلاغية
Author(s):نگہت رخسانہ/مسرت جمال

Abstract :

In order to fully understand the magnificent words of Allah (sub╒┐nahu wa ta’┐l┐), Muslim scholars throughout the ages have made every attempt to preserve and understand the rich and poetic classical Arabic language in both its forms; prose and poetry. Classical Arabic is more vital as it serves as a store of linguistic tools for understanding the Qur’┐n and Sunnah. Ab┴ ╓ayy┐n Al-Andalusi (d. 745) a famous commentator of the Abbasid era quoted abundantly from Arab poets in his tafs┘r work Al-Ba╒r Al-Mu╒┘t to explain the meanings of certain words and phrases used in the Qur’an. This article discusses rhetorical beauties of some of those verses along with their linguistic analysis and thematic explanations.
10) ضوابط النصيحة
Author(s):احمد جان الازہری

Abstract :

Counseling “al-Na╖┘╒ah” is an important conduit for personal and institutional development. In its practice, a professional as a helper, and individuals or groups as clients, meet in an intimate encounter in which change is sought for the client. At the disposal of the counselor is a range of theories that s/he can draw on to achieve this end. This article examines the intersection of Islam and counseling from its two fundamental sources of Law, i.e. Qur’an and Sunnah and indirectly argues that interventions comparable to Modern counseling methods are evident in Islam and can be located in these basic sources of doctrine and practice. These disciplines each provide a framework for counseling in Islam and knowledge of its basic tenets as well as limitations in its application. The article summarizes the basic principles and techniques of giving advice in seventeen points.
11) المتغيرات الاجتماعية وأثرها في الإقتصاد الإسلامي وتأثره بها
Author(s):ضياء الله

Abstract :

Islamic Economic System consist of institutions, organizations and the social values by which natural, human and man-made resources are used to produce, exchange, distribute and consume wealth, goods and services under the guiding principles of Islam to achieve fal┐╒ in this world and in the Hereafter. The economists have not paid much attention to social changes especially in the field of tanmiyah “development of finances”. The argument of the article is that every financial system requires a specific society for its implementation and any social change occurring in that society will badly affect its economic system. Based on this analogy, Islamic economic system will provide its fruit only in a society friendly to it, bowing to its customs and values. The writer has mentioned some of these values and clarified that there is a very close relation between having faith in the Creator (Allah) and in the development of economy.
12) الحـــــرية ومفهومها في الشـــــريعة الإسلامـــــية
Author(s):ابظاہرخان /سيد مبارك شاه

Abstract :

The course which Islam has enjoyed on man to realize the goal of al-╒urriyyah “freedom” includes profound intellectual endeavors, constant spiritual observances, binding moral principles, and even dietary regulations. When man follows this course, faithfully, he cannot fail to reach his ultimate goal of freedom and emancipation. The sense of freedom in Islam, in this article, has been compared with the concept of freedom prevalent in the Western world today. Firstly, the etymological evidence of the term al-╒urriyyah has been provided from dictionaries. Secondly, the concept of freedom has been explained in the light of the Qur’an and ╒ad┘th. Thirdly, a brief history of human rights and freedom in the West has been given with its comparative analysis with the concept of freedom in Islam. A conclusion of the discussion has been provided at the end of the article.
13) Profit Margin: An Islamic Perspective
Author(s):Salim ur Rahman/ Najeeb Zada

Abstract :

This study has been undertaken to explore the Islamic view point about “profit margin”. The main focus is to find whether there is a certain limit of profit that is prescribed by Islam or not. It has been observed that Islam, regarding the issue of profitable transaction, takes care of humans who enter a transaction to get benefit and are satisfied by earning some profit at least. So Islam does not confine profit to any specific limit. There are numerous traditions which reveal that any business transaction between two parties is mainly a matter of mutual consent. Therefore, after giving some primary rules about transactions, including the prohibition of interest, uncertainty etc., Islam has given the parties a right to agree on any profit ratio they like, according to their respective situations. Anyhow, there must be the element of “trust” and “honesty” especially in case of “Buy┴’ al Am┐nah” and if any party fails to observe these, the other party may have the option to cancel the transaction. This is exactly the situation where the topic of ghaban- e f┐╒ish has been discussed by the Muslim jurists. Besides, numerous Islamic traditions also emphasize the element of leniency, brotherhood and cooperation while fixing the price and earning profit

Volume No. 1

Issue No. 2

July-Dec 2010