معراج الاسلام ضیاء/صالح الدین حقانی
The mathematical determination of the qiblah was one of the most advanced problems in spherical astronomy faced by medieval Muslim astronomers and mathematicians. Celestial mapping sprang from a religious concern: the need to establish correct coordinates of cities so that Muslims could determine the direction of Ka'bah - the qiblah - towards which all believers face themselves in prayer five times a day. This need led to significant developments in Trigonometry, a field fundamental to terrestrial mapping and to the computation of planetary orbits. Muslim scientists who contributed works to determine the Qiblah direction from any point on the Earth's surface were: Al-Khawarizmi (780-850), Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi (d. after 869), Al-Nayrizi (865-922), Al-Battani (850-929), Abu al-Wafa' Buzjani (940-998), Ibn Yunus (950-1009), Al-Sijzi (945-1020), Abu Nasr Mansur (970-1036), Ibn al-Haytham (965-1040), Al-Biruni (973-1048), Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) and Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375), among others. This article briefly narrates the works of some of these scientists along with description of important fiqhi [legal] briefs about qiblah.