Peshawar Islamicus ISSN(Print): 2305-154X, ISSN(Online):2521-8409

1) تعین قبلہ:بعض مسلمان سائنسدانوں کی خدمات
Author(s):معراج الاسلام ضیاء/صالح الدین حقانی

Abstract :

The mathematical determination of the qiblah was one of the most advanced problems in spherical astronomy faced by medieval Muslim astronomers and mathematicians. Celestial mapping sprang from a religious concern: the need to establish correct coordinates of cities so that Muslims could determine the direction of Ka'bah - the qiblah - towards which all believers face themselves in prayer five times a day. This need led to significant developments in Trigonometry, a field fundamental to terrestrial mapping and to the computation of planetary orbits. Muslim scientists who contributed works to determine the Qiblah direction from any point on the Earth's surface were: Al-Khawarizmi (780-850), Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi (d. after 869), Al-Nayrizi (865-922), Al-Battani (850-929), Abu al-Wafa' Buzjani (940-998), Ibn Yunus (950-1009), Al-Sijzi (945-1020), Abu Nasr Mansur (970-1036), Ibn al-Haytham (965-1040), Al-Biruni (973-1048), Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) and Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375), among others. This article briefly narrates the works of some of these scientists along with description of important fiqhi [legal] briefs about qiblah.
2) عرف اور اسلامی معیشت
Author(s):عطاء الرحمن/ اعزاز علی

Abstract :

Islamic economic system is based on two fundamental pillars of Qur’an and Sunnah. The other important sources of Islamic law include Ijma’ (Consensus of opinions), Qiyas (analogical deduction) Isti╒san (Approval) and ‘Urf (custom). Many economic and other matters are settled in the light of ‘Urf. Keeping in view the significance of ‘Urf, Islam maintained all of those old customs which were beneficial for the humanity. This fact is referred to in the Qur’an in 2:185 and 22:77. So it is clear that those Customs and traditions which are proven beneficial for humanity were maintained and Islam upheld its validity in order to facilitate the society .Actually every Custom is being adopted due to its burning need, and Islam is the perfect religion to meet the needs and requirements of the people. An effort has been made to define and explain ‘Urf, its validity and impact on the economy of Islam in the following Article.
3) معتزلہ کے ظہور، اصول خمسہ اور مرتکب کبیرہ کے بارے میں علمی بحث
Author(s):محمد شعیب/ محمد عالم

Abstract :

There has always been significant scope for diversity of opinion and disagreement in Islam. It was observed among companions of the Prophet, even when the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was living .With the passage of time variety of views gave birth to several theological groups, including Mu’tazila (the Separatists). They came to be so called on account of their separation (i'tizal) from the truth, or because of their separation from the generally accepted doctrines (aqawil) of the main stream Muslims’. This article briefly presents the history of Mu’tazila and their five principles, i.e. al-tawhid (divine unity), al-‘adl (divine justice), al-wa’d wa ‘l-wa’id (promise and threat), al-manzilah bayn al-manzilatayn (the intermediate position) and al-amr bi ‘l-ma’ruf wa ‘l-nahy ‘ani l-munkar (advocating the good and forbidding the evil). The stand of mu’tazila regarding the murtakib of al-kabirah (the fate of a Muslim sinner) has also been explained at length with the result that the viewpoint of mu’tazila in this regard has very shaky foundations.
4) فقہی قاعدہ: المشقۃ تجلب التیسیر’’مشقت آسانی لاتی ہے‘‘کی عملی تطبیق
Author(s):زینب امین/ضیاء اللہ/سید مبارک شاہ

Abstract :

Al- qawa’id al-fiqhiyya or Legal Maxims are general rules which can be applied in various cases that come under common rulings. They play great role in the formation of Islamic Law because they are used as principles to deduce rules of fiqh. This article provides lexical and literal meaning of al-qa’ida and then concentrates on the application side of the legal maxim: al-mashaqqatu tajlub al-taysir “Hardship shall bring alleviation" meaning that the law shall not validly require anything which people are incapable of fulfilling without undue difficulty.
5) مذہب حنبلی کا تعارف اوراصول استنباط
Author(s):سلیم الرحمن/ نثارمحمد

Abstract :

The various schools in Islamic Jurisprudence “madhahib” merely extends the domain of the original texts of Islamic law, through ijtihad “efforts made in the light of Qur’an and Sunnah”. A mujtahid proceeds to the depth of the texts and finds the real meaning & understanding which is there in its letter and spirit. The Fiqh rules of conduct & especially of the four established schools of Law of Ahl al-Sunnah wal jama'ah closely correspond to this principle since the time of the Prophet (S.A.W) and his companions, rather, making it more noticeable. The pioneers of these Schools never derived a command in contrast to this basic principle. The given article provides an introduction to Hanbali School of fiqh, one of these four schools, and discusses its usul al-‘istinbat “principles of deduction” and its characterestics. It further elaborates that this school is not merely the outcome of the brain storming of Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal, rather, his specific style of understanding the Qur’an and Sunnah, and a unique procedure of strive & efforts by him regarding deducting commands from the basic sources of Islam.
6) علم معاشیات کے ارتقاء میں برصغیرکے علماء کاحصہ
Author(s):محمد ریاض/ محمد فیاض

Abstract :

Islamic economy is not a separate study but rather a part of the general Islamic system of organizing different aspects of life in the society. The importance Islam has shown to economic matters is evident from the commandments addressing numerous economic issues in the Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet (SAW). Similarly books of fiqh posses separate chapters on various modes of transactions and businesses. The Muslim scholars throughout the ages have scribed works on the economic system of Islam with particular focus on the fiscal issues of their times. Muslim scholars of the sub-continent have also played their role in this regard and have made their contributions in this field of knowledge. This article briefly presents works of some of those scholars who wrote in the field of Islamic economics, compared it with other systems or explained its fundamentals for general public. These include Shah Waliullah, Sir Sayed Ahmad Khan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Dr Anwar Iqbal Quresh, Maulana Muhammad Hifz ur Rahman Sewharwi, Manazir Ahsan Gilani and Sayed Abul A’la Mawdudi. All these scholars have had a substantial contribution to the gradual development of economics in the sub-continent. They made the Muslims of the sub-continent aware of the principles of the economic system. Moreover, they also recorded their significant role to solve the immediate and intractable economic issues under the British rule.
7) (جزیہ وخراج (فقہ اسلامی کے تناظر میں خصوصی مطالعہ
Author(s):ذوالفقار علی

Abstract :

Jizyah is a personal poll tax imposed by an Islamic State on ahl al-dhimmah (non-Muslim subjects) in lieu of protection given to their lives and properties with a stigma of humiliation attached to it. The roots of this tax are as old as the Persian and Byzantine empires, while Kharaj is a land tax received from them. The present article provides details about the application of jizyah and Kharaj. It recites the conditions in which they are to be paid. The amount of jizyah in different circumstances and other relevant facts attached to jizyah and Kharaj are also minutely defined.
8) الأسلوب الشرعي في نصيحة الولاة والحكام
Author(s):محمد سليم شاه

Abstract :

The essence of the “Islamic shara’ah” consists of the idea that it is not enough to practice Islam in one's individual life but that the teachings of the Qur'an and those of the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) must also be implemented in their totality in the social, cultural, juristic, political, and the economic spheres of life. The basic tool for advancing of this prime objective is Da’wah or in other words tawasi bi l-haqq “urging one another to the truth”. The following article explains the method of how to give advice to the authorities and ruling class of the Muslim society in accordance with the guidance perceived from the Islamic regulation.
9) التفسير بالإجماع بين النظرية والتطبيق
Author(s):سميع الحق /محمد طارق

Abstract :

The article elaborates on the significance, types and authority of ijma’ “consensus” according to experts after explaining literary and conventional meanings of tafsir. The connotation of the agreement of exegetes “mufassirun” on a particular explanation of a Qur’anic ayah/ayat has been later on looked into as a branch of the principles of tafsir. The opinions of al-Tabari, Ibn ‘Atiyya and Tha’alibi are presented at length to prove this point. The conclusion made at the end is that commonly ‘ijma’ is considered to be one of the principles of fiqh, as a matter of fact it may also be counted as one of the principles of tafsir using the same pattern and rules.
10) الرجز وتطوره حتى العصر الأموي:دراسة تحليلية
Author(s):محمد ظاہر شاه

Abstract :

Rajaz, a breed of saj’ “rhymed prose” is an ancient meter in the Arabic Poetry, which is common in didactic poems. The proper meaning of the word is “tremor, spasm, convulsion (as may occur in the behind of a camel when it wants to rise)”. The Arab poets had concentrated on this form of poetry since Pre-Islamic epoch. It is not clear how this word became a technical term in prosody. The grammatical and lexical irregularities and oddities found outside of rhyme in the rajaz verses has made it a favourite mine of shaw┐hid “evidentiary verses” for lexicographers and grammarians. In this article an attempt has been made to briefly study the etymology, history and the importance of rajaz in pre-Islamic, Islamic and Umayyad eras. Motives of development of rajaz in these ages have also been highlighted.
11) القصر ومحاسنه البلاغية في القرآن الكريم
Author(s):محمداسلام/سید مبارک شاہ

Abstract :

‘Ilm-l-Ma’ani is the branch of Arabic rhetoric which deals with the meaning of words and their semantic significance. It has to do principally with the art of successfully conveying intended ideas or meaning by skilful combination of words in a sentence or phrase. The rhetoricians define al-Qasr (a subject of ‘Ilm-l-Ma’ani) as restricting something to something else in a special way. It can be formed by negation with exceptional particles and by using innama, la, lakin and bal. The following article aims at discussing technical details and understanding various styles of “Qasr” in the Holy Qur’an.
12) تخصيص العام بالعرف العام
Author(s):فخرالدين سيد محمد قانت

Abstract :

Knowledge of usul al-fiqh is essential to save us from misinterpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah. This paper briefly discusses the important legislative term ’am “the general” concerning its definition, formation and inclusion of related individuals. ’Urf “custom” is also dealt with in terms of definition, divisions, reasoning and situational conditioning. This paper then shows the view of legislative text by the oral and practical convention. In conclusion, it gives privilege to the view that it is permissible to limit the general equally by the oral and practical convention.
13) البلاغة العربیة عبر العصور المختلفة
Author(s):مسرت جمال/ شبنم سلىم

Abstract :

Rhetoric in Arabic is the study of effective speaking, writing and the art of Persuasion. In its long and dynamic history it has enjoyed many definitions, accommodated differing and varied purposes, yet, for most of its history it has maintained its fundamental character as a discipline for training students of how to write and express themselves effectively. The present article evaluates the inspiring role of this science of speech in various ages along with description of its growth into several branches.
14) The Tomb of Malik Rajpal at Makli Hill, Thatta: History and Architecture
Author(s):M A Durrani/ Muhammad Naem Qazi/ Zakirullah Jan

Abstract :

During the golden era of Islamic empire that started from the mid-9th century until the devastation of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1256 AD, the Muslim culture remained unparalleled in its splendor and learning and was considered a period of un-comparable intellectual activity, particularly in the field of literature, alchemy, mathematics and architecture. But this magnificent epoch seems came to an end somewhere in the 11th century CE when de-integration of the Islamic empire started. The centralized power of the empire began to shatter due to problem of succession and marched toward the same fate as other empires. Since from its emergence, Islam remained a religion of a great tolerance towards other faiths and as a result of this open-minded attitude believing on giving-taking values the examples of which can best be seen in the different norms of the Muslim empire and in the subsequent rule, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. Although the intermingling of Arab, Central Asian and local Indian elements can be observed in the architectural heritage of the Muslims, the most significant are the Sassanid period architectural component and the Persio-Turkic traditions that largely influenced the Islamic aesthetic of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. One of the best examples, in this regard, is the tomb of Malik R┐jp┐l at Makli Hill. In the present work an attempt has been made to highlight the historical significance and the architectural glory of the said tomb, and to find solut

Volume No. 2

Issue No. 1

Jan-June 2011