Peshawar Islamicus (ISSN: 2305-154X)

1) درس نظامی کے نصاب اور اصول نصاب سازی کا جائزہ
Author(s):ڈاكٹرنیازمحمد/زینب امین

Abstract :

The most important purpose of education has always been capacity building and personality development of an individual so that he is enabled to be an active and useful member of his society and not only lives his own life successfully but also contributes effectively to fulfill the needs of the society and its uplift. In order to achieve this glorious purpose, the curriculum plays a vital role in education system as the whole system revolves around it. Hence, the curriculum development is considered to be a continuous and dynamic process so that it may cover the needs of individual, society and ever changing dynamic challenges accordingly. The curriculum of the Islamic seminaries in Pakistan, known as “Dars-e-Ni╘┐mi”, developed by Mull┐ Ni╘┐m-ud-D┘n Sih┐lvi (died 1748) during the regime of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb ‘└lamgir (died 1707). This paper aims to study the said curriculum and its principles analytically and to give suggestions for its more effectiveness
2) استعمالِ حق کی تحدید میں فقہاء کی آراء
Author(s):محی الدین ہاشمی

Abstract :

The concept of ownership in Islamic world-view is not absolute in nature as considered by Secular Capitalist Theory but, instead, the private ownership in Islam is simultaneously a social responsibility as well. It is a widely accepted legal maxim of Islamic Law that if a specific benefit of a person contradicts with general benefit of the society, then the later will be preferred. Moreover, when the personal benefits from one’s owned belongings cause severe harm to others, certain restrictions would be imposed on utilizing one’s own rights. Although majority of early Muslim Jurists including A╒n┐f were against imposing such limitations/restrictions on the owner considering these against the spirit of ownership which naturally includes the right of its uncontrolled usage. Accordingly, no court of law had the right to impose such restrictions upon the owner. Somehow, this point of view was not accepted by the later jurists in totality and they suggested several limitations on exercise of one’s right to safeguard neighbors and other fellow citizens from being victim of an uncontrolled ownership. Several examples have been mentioned in the present article with elaboration of juristic differences on the issue
3) اسلامی قانون فوجداری کا ضابطۂ تقادم
Author(s):ڈاكٹر مشتاق احمد/ڈاكٹر محمد عالم

Abstract :

Taq┐dum is one of the legal procedures devised by Muslim Jurists for regulating and streamlining law suits-process for bringing it in harmony with the judicial spirit of Islam. Laxically taq┐dum means prescription or lapse of time. With regard to this meaning the procedure of taq┐dum is executed against such claims, evidences and witnesses instituted or paid after the expiry of time specified for such endorsements and payments. Mostly taq┐dum extends benefit to defendant against his claimant. The cotemporary legal terminology of time-barred may pay the said connotations. In this article the Juristic opinions of some early as well as modern Muslim Jurists on the issue have been discussed. It is noted that M┐likites and their concordant who, vs. ╓anafites, de-jure taq┐dum only in civil suits but not in criminal ones. Beside Juristic comparison, the relevant sections and schedules of the Limitation Act 1908 (with sporadic amendments till 2012) have partially been discussed. Some French and Egyptian laws also possess the procedure of taq┐dum in form of taq┐dum Jin┐’┘ (De la Prescription penal) but are found inferior to Islamic law. However in contents all Muslim and non-Muslim Jurists agree to discredit taq┐dum or alike procedures if a claimant prove his delay in claim as justified on the ground of lawful reasons and excuses
4) روایات سیرت نبویؐ میں مبالغہ آمیز روایات کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ
Author(s):عطاء الرحمن

Abstract :

No doubt that the love of the Prophet Mu╒ammad (SAW) and his true recognition is a very important part of our belief but it does not mean that we forge false narrations and decline accurate teachings of the Prophet/reports about him. Some people in the past history, especially the qu╖╖┐s (story tellers) have been responsible for disseminating false reports/stories/narrations with the aim of mere attracting public towards them for material gains. Although these narrations enhance the magnitude of the personality of the prophet (peace be upon him) but still they are to be rejected, as their attribution to the prophet is not proven. The following article provides some examples of such false and fabricated narrations about the Prophet’s s┘rah with the aim of alarming readers to carefully differentiate between myths and the authentic a╒┐ad┘th
5) فقہ حنفی کی مقبولیت کے اسباب اورخصوصیات
Author(s):محمدریاض/محمد فیاض/سید مبارك شاہ

Abstract :

The Fiqh has its origins in K┴fah, the city founded by the second caliph ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him). The Caliph had directed ‘Abdullah Bin Mas’┴d to establish a grand centre of Islamic Education there. It was the place where Im┐m Ab┴ ╓an┘fah taught and laid the foundations of the ╓anafi school of thought. This being the First Fiqh School in Islam was soon patronized by the Muslim Rulers. The appointment of Im┐m Ab┴ Y┴suf as head of the department of Justice by the Abbasid Caliph H┐run al Rashid also paved the way for appointment of many ╓anafi Scholars on important positions. The law based on the doctrine of this school of thought was enacted and promulgated in the Abbasid Empire. The rise of N┴r Mu╒ammad Zangi in Syria, Turkey and Egypt saw the spread of ╓anafi fiqh through out the Muslim World. The rise of this Fiqh was further strengthened and enriched by the growth of literature in it. The name of Im┐m Abul ╓asan al-Qud┴ri must be mentioned in this respect. His Book Mukhta╖ar al-Quduri is a brief but comprehensive study of Fiqh is an outstanding manner. ╓anafi Fiqh has become global due to its general appeal and literary works of the outstanding scholars. Nearly eighty percent Muslims, world wide, are the followers of ╓anafi fiqh today. It is mainly due to the intellectual pursuit of Im┐m Ab┴ ╓an┘fah who would use to discuss each emerging issue with his students and colleagues in greater detail and would r
6) الترجمة من العربیۃ إلى اللغات الشرقية وقضية المصطلح الديني: الترجمة إلى اليابانية نموذجًا
Author(s):سميرعبدالحميدإبراهيم نوح

Abstract :

The public life in Islam was, and still is, based primarily on the use of Arabic language as a tool for dealing in social affairs, and this had an impact before the entry of non-Arabic speaking nations such as Turks and Indians and then other peoples of Asian countries in the Malay Peninsula and its bordering areas, who did not convert to speaking of Arabic made the Arabic speaking regions good places for the transfer of Arabic culture. Under this process, the Arabic alphabets (in its original or altered shapes) got transferred to those areas which were dominated my Islam in the shape of new languages such as Persian, Turkish, Urdu and even Malay in Asia, and Swahili language ‘Hausa’ in Africa. No doubt there are evidences of early migration of text from and into Arabic. The Umayyad era can however be specially pointed out in this regard as the common life in this period extended to a large community of non-native speakers of Arabic, both civil and in government service. The translation movement into Arabic flourished in the Abbasids rule, which initially focused on the transfer of philosophical and scientific books to the Arabic language, but later on included literary works into its sphere as well. Translation from Arabic into Urdu started while Urdu was still in its preliminary stages, even its name was not yet determined. The focus of the present article is on the abridged history of translation of religious literature from Arabic into Japanese. Special emphasis has b
7) العلاقات الأدبية بين الأدب العربي والبشتوني
Author(s):معراج الإسلام ضياء/سعداللہ المحمدی

Abstract :

The field studies have now this fact has now firmly been established by that some Arab tribes had settled in areas of Pashtuns in Afghanistan and Pakistan long ago, and it was through them that the Arabic language entered the homes of Afghans. Remnants from the Islamic armies, later on settled in the Pashtun area, further flourished Arabic in the region and it became the language of science, culture and academic excellence among them. Arabic Arabic has had a great influence on other languages, especially in vocabulary. The influence of Arabic has been most profound in those countries dominated by Islam or Islamic power. Arabic is a major source of vocabulary for languages as diverse as Berber, Kurdish, Persian, Pashto, Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Turkish, Spanish, Hindi, Portuguese, Catalan, Swahili, Somali, Malay, and Indonesian, as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. For example, the Arabic word for book /kita:b/ is used in most of the languages listed, (exceptions are Spanish, Catalan and Portuguese, which use the Latin-derived words "libro," "llibre" and "livro"). Other languages such as Maltese[1] and Nubi derive from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary
8) واجبنا نحو لغة القرآن الكريم في ظل التحديات المعاصرة
Author(s):بي بي حامده سيد /محمد سلیم

Abstract :

Arabic is spoken by more than two-hundred sixty million people throughout the world and is the main language of most of the Middle East. The global importance of Arabic language in today’s world cannot be overlooked keeping in view the growing presence of the Middle East in our daily news. Arabic plays an important role in the Islamic faith because Arabic is the language of the Holy Qur’┐n. We all feel touched when we open up a good translation of the meaning of the Qur’┐n and we ponder and wonder at the beauty of the words and the deep meanings within. But in reality we are just seeing a glimpse of the real treasure that the Qur’┐n is. The main theme highlighted in this article is to manifest the sublime rank and characteristics of the Arabic among other languages of the world. Through this article, an attempt has been made to educate and make an appeal to all Muslim nations, especially the youth, to keep themselves well aware of all modern tools and resources for the promotion, development and dispersal of this language to each and every corner of the world. Languages other than Arabic are advancing day to day while Arabic is legging behind, mainly due to our negligence and carelessness. The concluding part of the article points out that if we fail to fulfill our responsibilities towards this language, we would not be able to unify the Muslim countries and would not be able to understand the real spirit of the Qur'┐n and Sunnah, the basic sources of Islam
9) التفسير الموضوعي: نشأته، ألوانه وأهميته
Author(s):ہارون الرشید

Abstract :

Thematic tafs┘r is a more contemporary approach that focuses on compilation and in-depth discussion of ┐y┐t of similar subjects scattered throughout the Qur’┐n. In this approach an exegete “mufassir” selects a particular theme and then surveys the entire Qur’┐n for understanding of how it deals with the theme of analysis. Foundations of thematic tafs┘r are not new, but can be cognized from the classical sources of tafs┘r, wherein scholars have collected and discussed topics/subjects of the same nature from the Qur’┐n under the title of Qur’┐nic Sciences “‘ul┴m al-Qur’┐n”. The science of abrogation “‘Ilm al-Naskh”, identification of Makki and Madani ┐y┐t and compilation of ┐y┐t al a╒k┐m can be quoted as examples in this regard. The contemporary approach to thematic tafs┘r (only a century and a little bit more old) differs from the classical approach in a number of ways. Three prevalent approaches of the contemporary thematic tafs┘r are: (a) Study of a particular theme throughout the Qur’┐n, (b) Study of a particular phrase/word throughout the Quran and (c): Study of a particular theme/phrase/word within a specific s┴rah. Out of these three, (a) is very popular, as it provides a great opportunity for comprehending the verity of Qur’┐nic concepts on different issues of the time
10) ابن زيدون وسِجنِيَّاته في الأدب الأندلسي
Author(s):مسرت جمال/سید سیارعلی شاہ

Abstract :

Abu ‘l-Wal┘d A╒mad b. Zayd┴n al-Makhz┴mi (1003-1071) known as Ibn Zayd┴n was a famous Arab poet of Cordoba and Seville. His romantic and literary life was dominated by his relations with the poetess princess Wall┐dah, the daughter of the Umayyad Caliph al-Mustakfi. Although Ibn Zayd┴n was a leading figure in the courts of Cordoba and Seville, he was most famous among the people of his day because of his scandalous love affair with Princess Wall┐dah. Ibn Zaydun's prestige, as the leading poet and the lover of the most beautiful woman of Cordoba, awakened much jealousy among his rivals, such as Ibn ‘Abd┴s, the Caliph's Vizir, who created a venomous intrigue aimed at destroying his enemy's friendship with the Caliph and also his romance with Wall┐dah. Although the Caliph was fond of Ibn Zayd┴n, the scandal reached such proportions that he had him thrown into prison, and later exiled him to Seville. The hapless poet languished in the prison, far from the gardens of the great palace, Mad┘nat al- Zahr┐, and he passionately missed his beloved Princess. In this gloomy situation he wrote poetry beyond the doors of prison known as adab al-Sujj┴n. The following article is a short analysis of this ‘prison poetry’ of Ibn Zayd┴n along with his biography
11) التقنيات الخاصة المستخدمة لغيرالناطقين في تعليم اللغة العربية
Author(s):شهنازظهير

Abstract :

This Article is based on complete information about the special skills (both human and machine-driven) used for teaching of Arabic to non-Native Speakers. In today’s world, now a global village, a person can communicate with another in seconds around the globe, so no distance has now remained between a teacher and a student. Although the communication gaps have been filled by the fastest E-Technology, but in the developing countries, including Pakistan, people are still facing difficulties in learning-teaching process. We have to make education (especially teaching of Arabic language as it is the language of the basic sources of our religion) interesting & easily understandable. We should be equipped with both human and technical expertise, and in case of non-availability of one, we shoukd be able to shift to the other.This article presents a detailed report about the functions of both human & mechanical techniques in the field of language learning, which can be used in both formal and non-formal systems of Education
12) تبصرہ كتاب:تاریخ د سردار عالم محمد مصطفی ﷺ
Author(s):ڈاکٹر محمد سید الحسنات

Abstract :

13) Islam and Accounting
Author(s):Salim ur Rahman/Najeeb Zada

Abstract :

The current study is a part of the growing literature on Islamic accounting. The study has been carried out to explore the prevailing trends in Islamic accounting research. It traces down the accounting practices in the very early days of Islam, especially at the time of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) by looking into the original sources. Islam definitely encourages trade and business, gives a unique status to the business community and instigates the other business related activities. The current study asserts that Islam encouraged and promoted counting from the start and made it an integral part of a Muslim’s life. It, later on, helped in understanding and applying the relatively complex accounting related issues. There was a steady development in accounting practices as the Islamic state progressed financially. The introduction of Zakat, the fundamental source of state income in the initial days of Islam, played a vital role in this regard. The complex ratio of Zakat on different items creates a unique and deep relationship between Zakat and accounting. Being an essential part of any Muslim society or Shari’ah based business; Zakat will always serve as a bridge between Islam and accounting

Volume No. 2

Issue No. 2

July-December, 2011