Journal of Science and Technology

1) TUBERCULOSIS AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN MARDAN DISTRICT: ODDS RATIO ANALYSIS
Author(s):LAKHKAR KHAN, SALAHUDDIN , MUHAMMAD IQBAL, QAMRUZ ZAMAN

Abstract :

Abstract: Several studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of tuberculoses and to determine the possible risk factors for the diseases. In this study, a statistical method of odds ratio analysis was performed to look at the association of tuberculosis with various risk factors such as age, sex, residence, household population, economic status of household, marital status, drug, diet, medical care, living in a refugee camp and close contact with patient in Mardan district. A total of 645 cases were examined and their personal and medical data were collected. For each case, the phenomenon of tuberculosis was studied in relation to different risk factors. The analyses suggest that age, sex, residence, household population, economic status of household, marital status, drug, diet, medical care, living in a refugee camp and close contact with patient were important risk factors for the occurrence of tuberculosis.
2) REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS BY PHYTOEXTRACTION USING SALVADORA PERSICA
Author(s):FAZAL WAHID, IMDAD ULLAH MOHAMMADZAI, ADNAN KHAN, NAUMAN ALI, ZIARAT SHAH

Abstract :

Abstract: Salvadorapersica was converted into powdered form and characterized by using Infrared spectroscopy. It has various organic compounds and these compounds contain oxygen and nitrogen in their skeletons and behave superbly as coordinating ligands for cations present in the aqueous solution. The plant showed high sorption capacity for copper, lead and nickel from dilute aqueous solutions. Among these, the maximum sorption capacity was found for copper. The experimental data were adjusted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin sorption isotherms using both linear and non linear regression methods. All the four types of Langmuir linear equations were applied to linear and non linear regressions. The Langmuir model type 1 provided the lowest error values and fit better to experimental data as compare to the Freundlich and Temkin models.
3) STUDIES ON THERMAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) / COPPER NANOCOMPOSITES
Author(s):MUHAMMAD SALEEM KHAN, GULFAM NASAR, UZMA KHALIL

Abstract :

Abstract: Thermal properties and XRD of nanocomposites play a significant role in determining imperative properties of composites. In this investigation we have tried to find out the relation between XRD analysis and thermal behaviour of nanocomposites. Copper nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method. The prepared nanoparticles were incorporated in poly (vinyl alcohol) by physical dispersion method. Various compositions of nanocomposites were obtained by changing the ratio of nanoparticles with the polymeric material and were subjected to the thermal and structural characterization. Thermal studies suggest a greater thermal stability of the nanocomposites with an increase in the ratio of nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. XRD studies reveal that crystalline behaviour seems to be predominant in the PVA/Copper nanocomposites, which is attributed to the inter-facial interactions of components of the nanocomposite. SEM was used to study morphology of the film and the dispersion of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The dispersion of the nanoparticles within the polymer was merely uniform.
4) COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF COMPOST TEA (AERATED & NON-AERATED) OF AGRO-SIEVED-WASTE ON GERMINATION AND BIOMASS YIELD OF MAIZE, MUNGBEAN AND CAULIFLOWER
Author(s):SIFATULLAH , MUHAMMAD NAFEES, ROWAIDULLAH , HAIDER KHAN, ZAHID ALI, AMJAD ALI

Abstract :

Abstract: Study on the effect of compost extract also called Compost Tea (CT) was conducted at laboratory scale. The compost was prepared from Sieved-Agro-waste under two different conditions i.e. aerated (aerobic) and none aerated (anaerobic). The extract (tea) was prepared after mixing water with 1:4 (1Kg compost with 4 Kg water). For germination test the compost was applied on two plants seed, Maize and Mung-bean. For germination test 10 mls of extract was added to each Petri-Dish. The germination test was successful. To see the effect of the compost on plant growth the compost was applied on cauliflower plant. For this test the extract was applied in the form of spray @ 250 ml per day. Where 10 seeds /pot were sown in pots filled with 10 kg of soil. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Analytical results show that aerobic compost was comparatively high in Nitrogen with the average value of 2.104%. A slight variation was observed in Phosphorous and Potash contents. Microbial content was determined by Most Probable Number Technique and were high in Anaerobic Compost which is 4x1010, 4.2x1010 , 4.3x1010 counts/ml tea and low in Aerated compost tea which is 2x1010 , 2.3x1010 , 2.4x1010 counts/ml. Results show that highest yield of biomass and germination of seeds (Maize and mung-bean) was observed in aerobic compost tea. It is therefore concluded that aerobic compost is comparatively good and productive.
5) EVALUATING IMPACTS OF GHAZI BAROTHA HYDROPOWER PROJECT ON RE-SETTLERS AT BAROTHA MODEL VILLAGE, ATTOCK, PAKISTAN
Author(s):ZULFIQAR ALI, BUSHRA KHAN, AMIR NAWAZ KHAN, SYED ISHFAQ UR REHMAN,

Abstract :

Abstract: This study is aimed to evaluate the long term impacts of Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project (GBHP) on the lives of the Project Affected Peoples (PAPs), since their dislocation in 1995. Field surveys, focused group discussions, field observations were used for the collection of primary data, while secondary data was collected from project’s documents, past review studies of the project, reports of the donor agencies, and government’s policy guideline about resettlement. Results of the study show that the socio economic effects of the GBHP were not accurately predicted during project planning and measures to rehabilitate PAPs of GHBP were not effective enough. Amongst major areas, which were left unaddressed during project planning and operation include alternative livelihood means in situation when major earning sources of agriculture and livestock totally collapsed due to GBHP. The socio economic effects together with other human use and quality of life values have caused sense of disappointment amongst the re-settlers. Suggestions have been provided to mitigate the key issues of the project hence making it an example of sustainable development in the local as well as national context.
6) SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORIGINAL AND VARIOUSLY METAL DOPED BARIUM TITANATES
Author(s):M. ISMAIL KHAN, IMTIAZ AHMAD, M. ISHAQ , SHAKIR KHAN SAFI, WAQAS AHMAD,

Abstract :

Abstract: In the present study, lead (Pb) and cobalt (Co) doped, Perovskite type BaTiO3 were synthesized via reactive calcination method, for catalytic purpose. All the synthesized catalysts were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Studies (XRD) and Surface Area Analysis (SAA). The XRD analysis shows that ceramic materials formed have same crystalline patterns as BaTiO3, with well defined cubic geometry. Results of SAA show that the surface area of the catalyst increases from 98 to 127 m2/g in the presence of single dopant i.e. lead or cobalt, and further increases to 269 m2/g, as a result of co-doping with lead and cobalt.

Volume No. 35

Issue No. 1 & 2

-