Journal of Science and Technology

1) PREPARATION AND CHARACTERZATION OF POLY VENYAL ALCOHAL-ALUMING COMPOSITES
Author(s):M.HUMAYUN , M.SALEEM KHAN, ABDUR RAB, S.SULTANA , T.BIBI

Abstract :

poly vinyl alcohol-alumina hybrid materials were synthesized in aqueous medium by the sol-gel method using hydrochloric acid (HCL) AS Ctalyst and aluminum butoxide as alumina precursor,respectively.transparent,flexible thin film composites of homogenous thickness were obtained at room temperature after drying for 5 days.the hybrid composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy X-rays Difractometry(XRD). SEM micrographs revealed that alumina was dispersed in the PVA matrix without the large-scale aggregation of particles.EDX studies confirm the presence of alumina in the form of homogeneous dispersion in the polymer matrix.the amount of alumina is shown to be increasing with increase in aluminum butoxide.XRD pattern of pure PVA and PVA-alumina composite point out the wide bulge among 16 and 22 of 2-0 degree,and this is connected to amorphous field in poly vinyl alcohol thin film polymer.it was found that the extent of crystalline domain of composite poly vinyl alcohol has improved with addition of alumina.The crystalline movement is amplified with segment wise shift of poly vinyl alcohol mass among sites of coordination and relaxation of confined structure raise the crystallinity with increase of alumina.
2) FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH HEAVY METALS THROUGH WASTEWATER IRRIGATION:A REVIEW
Author(s):ALIA NAZ, S.SHAFIQUR REHMAN, SARDAR KHAN

Abstract :

Globally,agriculture sector consumes more water than any other sector of life.in order to cope with the problem of water shortage for irrigation,farmers use wastewater for irrigation in almost all countries of the world.mining,domestic sewage and industries are the major sources of wastewater.The farmers use wastewater for irrigation because it contains nutrients for the growth of plants and have positive impacts on plants productivity.along with nutrients for the wastewater also contains chemicals and heavy metals.food plants uptake heavy metals from wastewater irrigated soil and accumulated in their edible parts.vegetables irrigated with wastewater mostly contaminated with heavy metals and pose many health problems because of the accumulation of high amount of heavy metals.In many countries of the world the values of total target hazard Quotient(TTHQ) IS HIGHER THAN ONE WHICH MEANS THAT consumption of these contaminated vegetable pose health risks for the human.
3) STUDY OF PAPER MILL FOR WATER RECYCLING,HAYATABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE,PESHAWAR
Author(s):MUHAMMAD NAFEES, WISAL SHAH, HAYA KHAN, ZAHIDULLAH ,

Abstract :

This study Was designed to explore possibilty of intrducing the concept of wastewater recycling in the paper mill.tha main objective of this studey was to investigate how to improve the quality of pulp and paper mill wastewater effluent to make it fit for recycling inside the mill.for this a comprehensive study was conducted at olympia paper mill,Hayatabad.in first step different units operation and pollution points were examined and compiled the results.by comparing with Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standards the results were above the permissible limits and direct discharge is not environment friendly.to make it fit for re-use chemical treatment method(Alum,Lime) was applied.different doses of alkalinity and alum were applied by using simple jar test.it was found that alum dose with 8 ml alum and 4 ml alkalinity of 1000 mg/1 each give optimum results for paper machine effluents.For pulp synthesis(SP-plant) section need 26 ml of alum with 13 ml alkalinity of 1000 mg/1 each give optimal results.the digestor water was found a little difficult and need 74 ml and 37 ml of alum and alkalinity respectively of 1000 ml/1 strenght.to keep paper mill environment friendly,it is therefore strongly recommended to re-cycle the effluent of paper machine and SP-plant,and release the effluent from digester after treatment
4) SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF THE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR FREEWAY TRAFFIC MANAGERS EMPLOYING MICROSCOPIC SIMULATION AND EXPERT SYSTER IN PARALLEL.
Author(s):S.AKHTAR ALI SHAH, HOJUNG KIM,

Abstract :

This paper presents system architecture of the post-incident decision support system(PIDSS),which incorporates the predicted incident impacts from an offline microscopic simulation platform into an expert system.the system yields an immediate operational strategy for the freeway managers that can further be fine-tuned with the online simulation results.the novel idea presented in this paper is the replacement of the domain expert and knowledge engineer with the output of the microscopic simulation that would make incident congestion mitigation on the road network more efficient and cost effective.
5) ARSENIC CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER INDADU DISTRICT,SINDH PROVINCE,SOUTHERN PAKISTAN
Author(s):WAJID ALI, MUHAMMAD NAFEES, MUHAMMAD IJAZ, KHALID LATIF,

Abstract :

In this study arsenic concentration of groundwater samples collected from dadu district,sindh province,souther pakistan is presented.about 30 water samples were collected for analysis of as,Fe and other physico chemical parameters.arsenic in the study area varies form 0-500μg/1(mean 114 μg/1) while Fe ranges from 1.2 to 22 μg/1(mean 10.6 μg/1),TDS in 23 out of 30 samples is higher than the permissible limits set forth by World Health Organization for drinking water.similarly,As in 23 out of 30 samples shows concentration above the 10 μg/1 limit,set forth internationally for drinking water.groundwater in the study area is characterized as slightly alkaline,slightly moderately saline and anoxic.such chemical properties in addition to higher concentration of Fe in the groundwater of the study area may be resposible for the higher concentration of As in groundwater.all these conditions favor higher mobility and solubility of As in groundwater.
6) COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SACCHARUM BENGALENSE RETZ.AND VETIVER ZIZANIOIDES(L.) NASH ON SURFACE RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT LOSS AT VARYING SLOPE GRADIENTS.
Author(s):NASEER AHMAD, IFTIKHAR AHMAD RAJA, QAISER MAHMOOD,

Abstract :

The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two plant species i.e.Vetiver zizanioid(Vetiver grass) and saccharum bengalense Retz.(Munj sweetcane) to reduce soil losses on the slopes.in this study two sets of 6 plots of m × 2 m with their long axis oriented upslope were developed.the first set consisted of two plots under each of 1%,5% and 10% slope gradients.it was evident that survival rate of V.zizanioides(L.) Nash was much higher (above 90%) as compared to munj sweetcane.the analysis of data suggested that V.zizanioides(L.) Nash mediated about 50% reduction in runoff as compared to situation without any vegetative cover.in conclusion,V.zizanioides(L.)Nash can be effectively used to reduce soil losses on inclined surfaces.
7) TEMPERATURE TRENDS IN DIFFERENT CLIMATIC ZONES OF PAKISTAN
Author(s):SALMA , S.SHAFIQUR REHMAN, MUSHTAQ ALI SHAH, SAREER BADSHAH,

Abstract :

In this study ,variability and the trend of mean minimum and mean maximum temperatures in different climatic zones of pakistan have been analyzed.for the determination of trend in temperature 30 years data(1976-2005) from 30 meteorological observatories from different parts of the country have been selected by using the koopen climate classification.the analysis has shown a mixture of trends.the climate zone covering in high mountains in north,north west and west of the country show no trends whereas most of the plain and coastal areas show a positive trend because of big cities and towns with huge population,congested traffic,lack of developed infrastructure,mega industries and environmental degradation.however for the whole country a positvie trend of 0.11 °C/decade in the mean temperature,0.1 °C/decade in minimum temperature and 0.12 °C/decade in maximum temperature were found during the entire period of analysis.this calculated temperature trend in pakistan(0.11 °C per decade)is less than the global temperature trend,but it has significant impacts on the society as observed during the recent years.the human induced activities responsible for increasing temperatures in pakistan,if not maximized,the situation may further worsen in the near fiture and may have great negative impacts on agriculture,water supply and quality,health,socio-economic and environmental conditions.
8) JOINING TABLES ON SECRET PRIMARY KEYS
Author(s):AZHAR RAUF, SHAH KHUSRO, SHARAFAT ALI, SAREER BADSHAH

Abstract :

There is a need to protect data in relational databases from unauthorized access at finer levels of granularity and thereby make as much data available to the user as possible.current state-of-the--art security techniques offer elegant ways to protect data at the column,row and cell levels.the entity integrity contraint doesnot allow duplicate primary keys in a table.if row level security is implemented,a user may know the secret primary key inserted by a different user in the table.this secret primary key can be misused by inserting a dunny row in the child table as a foreign key.this results in the generation of misleading reports while joining the parent and child tables on the same key.this study suggests a technique to control this issue in row level security technique.
9) CONTRIBUTION TO THE FRESH WATER ALGAE OF SARDARYAB RIVER CHARSADDA,PAKISTAN
Author(s):FARRUKH HUSSAIN, ISHTIAQ AHMAD, NIAZ ALI, SAMI-UL-HAQ , MOHIB SHAH

Abstract :

Twenty six 26 genera with species of cyanophycceae (6 genera & 10 Spp.),charophyceae(one species),chlorophyceae (5 genera & 7 Spp.) and Bacillariophyceae (14 genera & 18 Spp.) were recorded from river sardaryab,district charsadda.thirty two species,previously unreported,are addition to the algal flora of sardaryab,charsadda,Pakistan.

Volume No. 34

Issue No. 1