Sarfraz Khan and Noor Ul Amin
During late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, activists of both Muslim and Hindu intelligentsia belonging to the British India began migrating to Afghanistan: Some were involved in the struggle to liberate India from colonial yoke, seeking Afghan, Iran, Russia, and Turkish support; Others focussed on spread of enlightenment, education, development of constitutionalism and democratic polity in Afghanistan. This paper attempts to chart and highlight services rendered by the British Indian Muslims, in the field of modern education and constitutionalism, to Afghanistan. Traditional Muslim schools known as madrassah, Maktab-e-Harbia (War/Military School) and Mulki-e-Khawanin (Royalty School) were opened during reign of Amir Sher Ali Khan (1925-79). Amir Abdur Rahman (1844-1901) opened schools for aristocracy, bureaucracy and army, also Ghulam Bachagan (page boys) were trained to loyally serve the court of Amir.
British Indian émigrés, with rising anti-imperialist nationalist consciousness, began teaching at Habibia School. Amanullah Khan founded three more secondary schools, each with a foreign language as medium of instruction: The Isteqlal School (1922) had a French faculty with French as medium of instruction. The Nejat School opened in 1924 with the German faculty and German as medium of instruction. In 1927, the Ghazi Victor School was founded, with Anglo-Indian faculty and English as medium of instruction. Indian teachers impacted the Afghan thinking and promoted