Central Asia

1) PRELUDE TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN AFGHANISTAN: THE ROLE OF INDIAN MUSLIMS (1901-33)
Author(s):Sarfraz Khan and Noor Ul Amin

Abstract :

During late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, activists of both Muslim and Hindu intelligentsia belonging to the British India began migrating to Afghanistan: Some were involved in the struggle to liberate India from colonial yoke, seeking Afghan, Iran, Russia, and Turkish support; Others focussed on spread of enlightenment, education, development of constitutionalism and democratic polity in Afghanistan. This paper attempts to chart and highlight services rendered by the British Indian Muslims, in the field of modern education and constitutionalism, to Afghanistan. Traditional Muslim schools known as madrassah, Maktab-e-Harbia (War/Military School) and Mulki-e-Khawanin (Royalty School) were opened during reign of Amir Sher Ali Khan (1925-79). Amir Abdur Rahman (1844-1901) opened schools for aristocracy, bureaucracy and army, also Ghulam Bachagan (page boys) were trained to loyally serve the court of Amir. British Indian émigrés, with rising anti-imperialist nationalist consciousness, began teaching at Habibia School. Amanullah Khan founded three more secondary schools, each with a foreign language as medium of instruction: The Isteqlal School (1922) had a French faculty with French as medium of instruction. The Nejat School opened in 1924 with the German faculty and German as medium of instruction. In 1927, the Ghazi Victor School was founded, with Anglo-Indian faculty and English as medium of instruction. Indian teachers impacted the Afghan thinking and promoted
2) SOUTH ASIA-CENTRAL ASIA INTER-REGIONAL CONNECTIVITY: THE FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
Author(s):Muhammad Azhar and Ayaz Muhammad

Abstract :

Progress and prosperity require joint intra-regional and inter-regional collaboration, utilizing resources at their maximum and exploring new avenues for transit and trade. This will not only bring the prosperity, uplift the socioeconomic conditions of the masses, but also contain the role of non-state actors. In the contemporary world, economic interests and benefits have become more important players rather than ideologies in defining the mutual relations and cooperation among the states. Land-sea corridors connect several states, regions and continents into single transnational entity. Resultantly, mutual trade and commerce cooperation multiplies. The paper aims to have an insight into whether the revival of the Silk Route and access to Caspian region will play any role to improve political, cultural and socioeconomic ties between both the regions and how it will become the economic hub of the world economy. The study will explore how new possibilities will provide the rational and cost-effective transitional and trade route to the non-coastal states of Central Asia and how the strategic energy reserves will be beneficial for South Asian States.
3) DEATH OF ISLAM KARIMOV AND THE FUTURE OF ISLAMISM IN CENTRAL ASIA: CASE STUDY OF ISLAMIC MOVEMENT OF UZBEKISTAN
Author(s):Adam Saud

Abstract :

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) is deemed as the most lethal terrorist organization throughout Central Asian region. Although it emerged in 1998, its roots can be traced back to the era right after the demise of former Soviet Union. This Movement was created to launch an armed struggle against Islam Karimov’s regime in Uzbekistan. IMU, however, could not make solid bases in Uzbekistan and remained engaged in Tajik civil war between 1992 and 1997. After the General Peace Accord of 1997 singed between the rival groups which ended the Tajik Civil War, Uzbek militants had no choice but to move to Taliban ruled Afghanistan. The US led attack in Afghanistan after 9/11 forced the remnants of Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan to take refuge in the FATA region of Pakistan. IMU’s focus was primarily targeting Western forces in Afghanistan. However, when Pakistani government initiated a military action in FATA against the terrorists in 2004, IMU joined its hands with Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). After this union IMU started its operations in mainland Pakistan and Afghanistan. It also supported Islamists to siege Swat in 2007. From attacks on armed forces bases in Karachi and Peshawar to jail break in Bannu and from attacks on Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta airports to kidnapping for ransom, IMU had played central role in terrorist activities in Pakistan. Similar kinds of activities have been carried out by IMU in Afghanistan as well. The IMU has least focus on Central Asia f
4) AN ANALYSIS OF SULTAN MUHAMMAD KHAN’S WORK: THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS OF AFGHANISTAN
Author(s):Muhammad Shafi and Noor Ul Amin

Abstract :

Afghanistan, from its inception in 1747, had remain an ill-defined country with no centralized authority until the rule of Amir Abdur Rehman (r.1880-1901). He not only settled the boarders of Afghanistan but also established a centralized government which, though dictatorial in nature, was ruled under the restrains of the ‘Sharia’ (Islamic Law) and Customary Laws of the Afghan tribal society. These laws existed in written literature in Pashto and Dari, but not in English. The first ever book in English containing the laws governing Afghanistan is ‘The Constitution and Laws of Afghanistan’ written by Sultan Muhammad Khan in 1900. The work is mostly derived from oriental customs and Mohammadan law. It describes the laws and constitution of Afghanistan before 1900 in the light of modern European laws. The author, Sultan Muhammad Khan, a British-Indian, the father of renowned Urdu poet, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, had been Mir Munshi (chief secretary) of Amir Abdur Rahman in Afghanistan from 1888 until 1898. After trusting and recognizing his services in Afghanistan, the Amir appointed him as ambassador to England for the period 1899-1901. This paper analyzes the established system of laws as given in ‘The Constitution and Laws of Afghanistan’
5) THE STATUS OF EDUCATION GOVERNANCE IN CONFLICT AFFECTED NORTH-WESTERN PAKISTAN BORDERING AFGHANISTAN
Author(s):Tehseena Usman and Asghar Khan

Abstract :

The North-Western Pakistan region (Tribal Areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) has been caught up in militancy, conflict, terrorism, insecurity and instability for more than a decade. Militancy is a serious threat in the way of education and has affected the education governance in North-Western Pakistan. Also, the mental and psychological development of children in FATA and KP has been badly affected due to continuous attacks on educational institutions by militants. These terrorist activities and military operations have caused massive displacement of the local residents to different parts of Pakistan. Furthermore, Education has been overlooked by successive governments in FATA and many areas in KP where literacy rate is critically low. These areas already lag behind other provinces socially and economically. Poor governance, political instability and terrorism have resulted in illiteracy and deprived the students of their basic right to education. This paper underlines the status of education governance by analyzing the impact of militancy and instability on the education. Moreover, the paper is structured to show how these problems can be addressed through a more comprehensive strategy and programs of action by the government of Pakistan

Volume No. 77

Issue No. Winter 2015

  Contents