Central Asia

1) DEMYSTIFYING TRIBAL AUTONOMOUS GOVERNANCE: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF MALIKI SYSTEM IN FEDERALLY ADMINISTERED TRIBAL AREAS (FATA)
Author(s):Sarfraz Khan and Noor Ul Amin

Abstract :

The paper argues that the British Empire strengthened an institution known as [Recognized/Enlisted] Maliki granting ‘so-called’ muwajjab, i.e., paid individuals allowances/benefits, both in cash and kind, to create an elite loyal to the Crown. Ostensibly Malik, the chief of a qawm, clan/subtribe/tribe, has been a liaison between his tribemen and the political administration in tribal areas (now FATA). He settles intra clan/subtribe/tribe disputes, as a member of a Jirga, relating to law and order. In 1867, Robert Sandeman introduced the Maliki system first in Baloch areas of Punjab (included then NWFP, now KP and tribal areas) and now Balochistan. Prior to the British occupation, a Malik has been an elder, ‘spingirey’, respected by his tribal segment owing to links in the genealogical chain. There exist three, almost hierarchical, types of Maliks, Those: (1)enlisted/appointed during the British era and in receipt of Lungi/kharcha; (2)selected/appointed from amongst Ayub Khan’s Basic Democrats in 1960s and in receipt of Lungi; (3)appointed Malik/lungi holder by the Political Agent, approved by the Governor of the then NWFP, now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The creation of hereditary privileged position has been against the spirit of egalitarian Pakhtun tribal customs and traditions. After independence, these Maliks became part of an electoral college that elected members of the lower house of parliament representing tribal areas of Pakistan till the introduction of Adult Fran
2) FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN AFTER 9/11 CONCERNING U.S. & ITS OMINOUS PITFALLS FOR FEDERALLY ADMINISTERED TRIBAL AREAS (FATA)
Author(s):Naqeebullah Kakar and Nazir Ahmed Kasi

Abstract :

Since its inception on the map of the world, Pakistan’s Foreign policy has been facing grim challenges. Undeniably, the challenges of the 21st century have imperilled Pakistani state and its foreign policy. Specifically, in an international context; the event of 9/11 and its aftermath; globalization; international terrorism; drone strikes in FATA and in domestic context; extremism and economic decline have added to the ineffectiveness of foreign policy. Pakistan has been projected by the international community and the media to be the hub of terrorism. This research paper will unfold the foreign policy of Pakistan, certain characteristics that imperil various aspects of it and specifically the foreign policy of Pakistan in the 21st century with regard to the U.S. after the twin towers event in 2001 and its ominous pitfalls for the federally administrated tribal areas (FATA) of Pakistan. Finally, it will provide with doable options for tailoring sustained, efficacious and progressive foreign policy of Pakistan in regional and international context.
3) REFLECTIONS ON AFGHANISTAN’S LOWER HOUSE (ULASI JIRGA) PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS 2010
Author(s):Mohammad Shafi and Noor Ul Amin

Abstract :

This paper focuses on Ulasi jirga elections of Afghanistan held in September 2010. Main objective of the paper is to analyze the elections; highlight the modern electoral political working in Afghanistan; the role of various factors such as; the political ideology, the political parties, the role of warlords; and the nature of election campaign in the elections. The paper will provide an insight into the electoral politics of Afghanistan. It has been organized into two parts; Part 1, highlights pre-poll uncertainties, expressed by the observers of election, the concern for transparency of electoral process, threats of insurgents, and manipulation of warlords. This part also highlights the elections campaigns took place despite the warnings and fears. Part II covers the post-poll scenario, the human toll it took, the frauds reported and the way these issues were interpreted and addressed leading to differences between the Independent Election Commission and the pro-President’s attorney general office. Finally, it will further highlight reflections made out of this study.
4) MATERIALS USED FOR THE MANUSCRIPTS OF CENTRAL ASIA AND THE SUBCONTINENT
Author(s):Kanwal Khalid

Abstract :

Artists of the world use different styles and materials to express their creativity. All these are employed to get an end product, which is to show not only their skill level but to communicate thoughts, ideas and concepts. But this is not possible without some kind of medium. As compared to today, our previous generation of artists were very conscious regarding the durability of the artefacts they produced. They wanted their art pieces to last for centuries and due to this reason, a lot of attention was given to the preparation of these materials and special methods were evolved to get the best results. Availability of hundreds of years old art pieces, is an evidence to their success. A lot has been written about miniature paintings and manuscripts that were produced during different eras but not much detail are available about the materials used by the artists. Present research is focused on those materials of miniatures and manuscripts with specific emphasis on the 18th and 19th century productions. Some myths are explored by employing modern day scientific methodology to prove their credibility.
5) COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF PROVINCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIONS
Author(s):Inayat Ullah Khan

Abstract :

The Federal Government of Pakistan has legislated on the protection of environment in 1997. After Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973, the subject of environment devolved to the Provinces, and thereafter, all the Provinces legislated on environmental protection. This article has reviewed through comparison the post Eighteenth Amendment provincial legislation on environment, and has identified strengths and weaknesses of each of such legislation. Mostly, the legislation is the reproduction of the Federal legislation on environmental protection. Comparatively, the Balochistan, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh environmental legislations have incorporated new environmental concepts, while the Punjab legislation is a complete reproduction of the Federal legislation in verbatim. The article has made recommendations related to uniform development of law on the protection of environment in light of the environmental conventions and national policies of the federal government.

Volume No. 76

Issue No. Summer 2015