Central Asia

1) SINO-RUSSIAN RAPPROCHEMENT INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING AND POLICY ANALYSIS
Author(s):Muhammad Khan & Arshmah Jamil

Abstract :

In a rapidly changing world, China’s close ties with Russia have aroused curiosity particularly due to the nature of their relations in the past. The Sino-Russian bilateral relationship restored and strengthened after years of mutual suspicions. After the cold war, geostrategic realities and converging interests have brought Russia and China closer in an attempt to bring a change in the global structure; the uni-polar model of world. Institutions in this regard, are playing the decisive role in enhancing the converging policies of the two countries. The paper therefore, aims at analyzing the role of institutions in advancing the rapprochement between these former communist giants. The paper also elaborates the importance of Shanghai Cooperation Organization in becoming an effective platform to address the regional concerns of these two. Furthermore, this rapprochement is viewed in the context of United States and the distinct policies it must adopt to tackle the Sino-Russian alliance. The institutionalization of bilateral relations between Russia and China should be used as an example for countries that have ongoing conflicts with their neighbors.
2) A CONCISE INTERPRETIVE ANALYSIS OF U.S. – KAZAKHSTAN RELATIONS, 1991-2013
Author(s):Hujjathullah M.H. Babu Sahib

Abstract :

The United States’ new interest in the Central Asian region has seen its relations with Kazakhstan, continually but incrementally, getting more important. The United States is having increasing ties with Kazakhstan in political, economic and strategic terms. These ties are reviewed here using a sector-oriented analytical lens, viewing in turn the origins of their diplomatic relations, their bilateral interactions, addressing, specifically, development assistance, trade, investments, business presence, energy dealings and their defense and security ties. This article, thereby, attempts to provide, simultaneously, a loose chronological, thematic and an interpretative analysis of the, clearly, broad-based United States and Kazakhstan relationship, noting there through also the changes taking place in it, over time. Geo-political aspects are mentioned, as and where necessary, contextually and the multi-lateral aspects of the relationship are merely hinted at, in passing
3) SALIENCE OF QAWM, ETHNICITY, IN AFGHANISTAN: AN OVERVIEW
Author(s):Sarfraz Khan & Irfan Ali Shah

Abstract :

It has been assumed that qawm (a flexible term, referring to kin, clan, village, tribe, ethnic/vocational/confessional group, profession, and/or nation) used to be the primary identity in Afghanistan. However, after 1979, ethnicity and sect (confession) became the primary identities, as a consequence of war and funding by the West and neighboring/regional states. More than three decades of violence and instability in a multi-ethnic state, Afghanistan, not only destroyed political, social and economic infrastructure, but also inflamed ethnic, sectarian, and regional divisions. More than fifty ethnic groups reside Afghanistan including: four major groups; the Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, and the Hazara; constituting 90% of Afghan population. The Pashtun, ruled the country throughout its history, barring two brief spans (1929 and 1992-94) when Tajiks ruled Afghanistan. The promulgation of 1964 Constitution in Afghanistan stirred political struggle between various ethnic groups, the Pashtun and non-Pashtun, for power. The Soviet invasion, in 1979, stimulated and further politicised ethnicity. Conversely, the Mujahideen (1992-96) and the Taliban (1996-2001), ethnicised politics that led to severe infighting between major ethnic groups and resulted into ethnic violence, cleansing and/or conflict. Ethnicity became salient further during the post-Taliban governments due to power sharing arrangements. Examining the salience of qawm, in Afghanistan, the article argues that ethnicity was poli
4) RENTIER STATEHOOD, GROWTH OF CAPITAL AND STATE MAKING IN AFGHANISTAN
Author(s):Shahida Aman

Abstract :

Taking the theoretical framework of rentier states, this paper attempts to understand the making and unmaking of the Afghan state in the light of growth of capital and statehood. In Europe, where the modern statehood concept first took shape, state making and growth of capital based on domestic resource extraction, coercion and legitimacy went hand in hand. Afghanistan’s historical brush with state making suggests that unlike the European state making experience, the Afghan elite’s failure to mobilize effectively domestic economic resources for financing state building needs led resultantly to a continuous dependence since its early days of inception on foreign sources of income, including tributes from outlying provinces and subsidies as well as development aid from regional and international power players. Economic problems compounded by harsh geographical terrain, low infrastructural growth, inept economic policies and persistent conflict provided a very low extractable base to the economy and gave a rentier character to the state income. Dependence on rentier income in turn, stunted bureaucratization and institutionalization, removed compulsion from rulers to develop effective state institutions and destabilized regimes when-ever rentier sources of income dried up. This paper argues that such rentier status of Afghan economy and polity continues unabated in the post 2001 period. With around 90% of the state budget contributed by foreign sources, the historical pattern
5) THE CONTRIBUTION OF INDIAN MUSLIMS IN DEVELOPING PRINT MEDIA AND SPREADING ENLIGHTENMENT IN AFGHANISTAN (1870-1930)
Author(s):Sarfraz Khan & Noor Ul Amin

Abstract :

It is generally believed that invaders, men of letters and religion, from Afghanistan, have significantly influenced the course of history in India. The contribution of Indians, especially Muslims, in spreading knowledge, enlightenment and modernization in Afghanistan did not attract much scholarly attention. This paper attempts to highlight the contribution of British Indian Muslims towards dissemination of knowledge, enlightenment and information in Afghanistan, while working for Afghan newspapers and periodicals in 1870- 1930. Qazi Abdul Qadir Yousafzai Peshawari, the Chief Editor of Shamsul Nahaar; Mauolvi Najaf Ali, Sub-Editor of Sirajul Akhbar; Allah Nawaz, Assistant Editor of Ethihad-i Mashriqi; Fazal Mahmud Makhfi, translator (Pashto, English) of Daily Anees, and Etihad-e-Mashriqi; and Muhammad Hussain, calligrapher, Toloe-Afghan, and Director magazine, Habibul Islam, included some of those personalities who pioneered and assisted in developing print media to promote enlightenment and modernization in Afghanistan.
6) HISTORY OF DIR VALLEY PAKISTAN: FROM ARYANS TO THE ARRIVAL OF AFGHAN PASHTUNS
Author(s):Fazlul Haq & Fazlur-Rahman

Abstract :

This study is focused on exploring the historical background of Dir Valley located in the Hindu Raj Range of the Eastern Hindukush Range. This region offers a wide potential for research in various sectors of life and environment. However, it is still unexplored and research activities are almost negligible. Other valleys located in the northern mountains of Pakistan such as Swat, Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan regions are extensively studied and exclusive literature is available on every aspect of social as well as physical environment of these regions. Contrary to this, Dir Valley is completely neglected by researchers both in past and present and no such organized and detail studies can be found in any field. Hence, this study may be stated as the beginning of research in this area and it will open new windows for research and debates on this unexplored mountainous valley.
7) ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING SOCIAL RESILIENCE IN DROUGHT PRONE DISTRICT OF NUSHKI BALOCHISTAN
Author(s):Nasrullah & Syed Ainuddin

Abstract :

Resilience is the ability of system, community or society exposed to hazards to absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a disaster in a timely and efficient manner. In achieving community resilience, the role of local institutions is of prime importance. Local institutions can be used as catalyst in mainstreaming the community to withstand and recover from natural disaster. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate the role of local institutions in providing social resilience in district Nushki. Which is an administrative district of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Located at the western end of the country’s border with Afghanistan. The indicators used to measure the social resilience are community awareness, age, educational level, health insurance facility and social capital in community.The results specify that the status of social resilience of drought prone community is poor. The formal public sector district level institutions and civil society organizations have limited role in promoting community resilience in regard to formal risk assessment, identification, dissemination and mitigation. These institutions also have played minimum role to enhance the awareness and capacity building of local vulnerable communities, develop the coping mechanisms and implement the already existing laws. Theirrole has seen as disaster response activities and coordination with non-governance organizations during the disaster period in the district. The study rec

Volume No. 75

Issue No. Winter 2014