Central Asia

1) CONTEMPORARY GEOSTRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT OF CENTRAL ASIA: THE US, RUSSIAN AND CHINESE PLANS OF INTEGRATION
Author(s):Shabir Ahmad Khan and Suleman Yousaf

Abstract :

The idea of integration is central to the contemporary geostrategic environment of Central Asia. Each of the great powers that is Russia, China and America has been working on its plan of integration in order to give orientation to the region in own preferred direction, further her own influence and at the same time deny that to the others (rivals). Cooperation and competition is evident in the evolving contesting and competing interests of the major powers. The Central Asian Republics are playing these powers off one another to maximize their own interests and secure regime security. China vis-à-vis United States of America enjoys geographical advantage of close proximity to the region while relatively to the Russian Federation China enjoys huge economic and financial leverage. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as a benchmark Project of One Belt One Road (OBOR) is closely related to this geostrategic environment of Central Asia as it would integrate the landlocked region to Arabian Sea and beyond efficiently and effectively.
2) PRESENTING ISLAM IN THE CONFUCIAN CONTEXT: TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF A CHINESE MUSLIM TRACT
Author(s):Ayesha Qurrat Ul Ain

Abstract :

This piece of research is meant to investigate the interrelationship of Islam and Confucianism in the history of Chinese Muslims concentrating upon the textual analysis of a Chinese Muslim tract written during Ming dynasty. We suggest that the Muslims enacted the Islamic principle of ‘picking up the appropriate and shunning the improper’; thus they adopted and inculcated the Confucian ethical teachings and social values compatible to Islamic tradition into their intellectual framework and stayed isolated from the rituals contrary to the Islamic practices. By adopting this strategy they intelligently propagated the word of Islam among the Confucian audience emphasizing the ethical aspect of their tradition thus enacting the Quranic principle of doing Dawah by calling towards a common word. The analysis of the Chinese Muslim tract known as Qingzhen Jiao Shu will reveal the patterns of Chinese Muslim thought and divulge the tactics the Chinese Muslim authors adopted while presenting Islam to a Confucian majority culture.
3) PAKISTAN’S POST 9/11 AFGHAN POLICY: IMPACT ON FATA
Author(s):Zarmina Baloch

Abstract :

In the backdrop of War on Terror in Afghanistan, Pakistan abandoned its two decade long Afghan policy of supporting Taliban, Islamic Jihad, Islamic fundamentalists, and became an ally with US in conducting operations against Al-Qaida and Taliban network in Afghanistan. This change in Pakistan’s Afghan policy had deep impacts on country’s peace and security, particularly on Pakistan’s bordering region with Afghanistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). Consequently, Pakistan’s military conducted several operations from 2002 onwards in FATA. During this period, several peace agreements were conducted between the military and militants in FATA. But such operations and the subsequent agreements failed to prevail peace in border region. Instead, spreading conflicts to other areas of Pakistan. This paper attempts to examine Pakistan’s Afghan policy since 2001, and analyze its impact on FATA’s peace, security and social fabric. It also critically analyzes the strategies adopted by Pakistan’s military in dealing with Pakistan based militant groups and foreign insurgents in FATA. The issue of peace and conflict in FATA needs to be carefully addressed because this is a porous and fragile area that exists between Afghanistan and Pakistan. FATA’s volatile geography makes it more violent and resistant to international aid, Counterinsurgency (COIN) tactics, and development, which has direct impact over peace and development of Pakistan. The methodology employed is
4) REPATRIATION VS SETTLEMENT: THE FUTURE OF POST-1989 KASHMIRI REFUGEES IN AZAD KASHMIR
Author(s):Faizur Rehman and Amna

Abstract :

Due to the diverse reasons, people have been migrating from one place to another since centuries. Kashmir conflict is one of the world's unsettled conflicts, which has negative implications on regional security and stability, with no termination in sight for the tumult. Since the beginning of uprising in 1988, the Jammu & Kashmir region has been the spot of dreadful violence, death and displacement. Due to the unrest, thousands of refugees have crossed over to Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJ&K, shortly AK)and encountered a number of tangible and intangible challenges; however, the AK Government has given certain incentives to these refugees. On the other hand, the Government of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K, also known as Indian Occupied Kashmir) has introduced Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy in November 2010 to facilitate the return of these refugees, yet, due to certain reasons, the policy has remained unsuccessful in achieving its goal. Though refugees have been entering into the social fabrics of the local communities through intermarriages and socio-economic ventures since 1989, yet the Government is still indecisive about their future settlement. This study is focused on the issues and challenges to the refugees, Government response and the possible solution regarding their future settlement.
5) TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS REGARDING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAR ON TERROR AND THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF TRAUMATIZED STUDENTS IN VILLAGE SAFI, MOHMAND AGENCY
Author(s):Parveen Khan

Abstract :

It was a descriptive study that explored the relationship of War on Terror and the Academic Achievements of War on Terror Stricken Students’ in Village Safi, Mohmand Agency. The study was descriptive in nature. The population of the study constituted of all male and female students of Secondary Schools in village Safi. There were total 115 Schools in village Safi, Mohmand Agency in which 09 were secondary schools (07 were boys’ and 02 were girls’). The target population was all 9th Class students and teachers in Safi, Mohmand Agency. Purposive Sampling technique was used. Only those students were included in the study who appeared in board examination in the year (2016) and were victim of War on Terror. The sampling included 100 students (both male and female) from all the secondary schools 70 from male (10 students per schools) and 30 from female schools (15 students per schools) and 80 teachers were randomly selected from the same schools. Pearson correlation was used for data analysis. Results showed that there was strong negative correlation between the academic achievements of class 9th students and War on Terror. The analysis also indicated that students’ who were victim of war of terror did not like to face and meet strangers and it had a high positive impact on their academic achievements at secondary level in village Safi, Mohmand Agency. Some recommendations were also given in study which included that in spite of all efforts made by the government, the pres

Volume No. 78

Issue No. Summer 2016