Journal of Science and Technology

1) ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE ON FISH (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA) BY COMET ASSAY

Authors

MUHAMMAD KHISROON, SAJJAD , FAWAD KHALIL, SHAH FAHAD ALI KHAN,

Abstract

Copper is one of the important heavy metals causing genotoxicity in aquatic organisms. Being a constituent of various industrial and natural chemical compounds it is continuously incorporated into aquatic ecosystem. A significant DNA damage was observed in Grass Crap (Ctenopharyngodon idella) on exposure to CuSO4 solution . Three groups of fishes were exposed to 0.3mg/I solution of CuSO4, group I for 12 hrs group II for 24 hrs , and group III for 48 hrs. Each group consist of three fish, one year old with average length of 13.5 cm and average weight of 200 g, unrated fishes were taken as a control group. DNA damage was evaluated in the erythrocytes by Comet assay . The frequency of DNA damage was directly related to the time of exposure to CuSO4 solution i.e. genotoxicity was more in 48 hours exposure than any of the group and least or no damage was found in the control group. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effect of CuSO4 was also elaborated by the increase level of blood Alkaline Phosphatase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase accompanied with the decrease of blood protein level with respect to time of exposure indicating liver damage in fish. Comet assay is the best and well-documented technique for the evaluation of genotoxicity in aquatic organisms.

2) ROOT ANATOMY OF CHROZOPHORA TINCTORIA (L.) RAF AND RICINUS COMMUNIS L. (EUPHORBIACEAE)

Authors

GHULAM DASTAGIR, FARRUKH HUSSAIN,

Abstract

The transverse section of the root of Chrozophora tinctoria shows that the epidermis consists of a single of epidermal cells. The trichome is conical in shape and also curved in C. tinctoria, and it is absent in Ricinus communis root. In R. communis the cortex region has more number of layers of cortical cells, greater total width, greater length and width of cortical cells and an increased number of crustals of calcium oxalte as compared to C. tinctoria. The endodermis is not easily differentiated in both the roots. The xylem vessels are abundantly oval and rounded in shape in both the roots . There are very narrow medullary rays in both the roots. The medullary ray cells length and width are greater in R. communis than C. tinctoria. The pith cells contain no crystals of calcium oxalate in both the roots. The pith cells are compactaly arranged and associated with medullary rays in both roots. The plants samples of C. tinctoria and R. communis were taken with a swift M3300D Series microscopic .The cells measurements were made by an ocular micrometer using the stained roots sections. These anatomical features will help to provide information of taxonomic significance and to distinguish the adulterants from the original drug. These findings will be of importance in the establishment of diagnostic indices for the identification,classification and standardization of the plants.

3) RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TEEN AND ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE IN PESHAWAR PAKISTAN

Authors

SAREER BADSHAH, LINDA MASON, KEN MCKELVIE, ROGER PAYNE, PAULO J.G LISBOA,

Abstract

The adverse effect of extreme maternal ages on pregnancy outcomes is well known,however,factors associated with teenage(<20years) and advanced (>34 years) maternal ages compared to middle age mothers (20-34) are still a question at peshawar-the capital khyber pukhtoonkhwa province of pakistan.a total of 1039 record of mothers collected prospectively from the four public hospitals in peshawar during August-November 2003 are analysed using odds ratios at univariate level and logistic regression was used for adjusted odds ratios.this study found that,short inter pregnancy interval of less than 18 months(OR=2.8,p<0.01) and low pregancy weight of less than 57 kg.(OR=3.18,p<0.01> were independently associated with teenage mothers compared to middle age mothers,however,history of previous abortion/miscarriage along with a number of geo-demoghraphic-factors,for instance,area of residence,nationality,and husband education( tribal areas OR=2.0,p<0.001;Afghan refugee OR=3.2,P<0.01; And husband illeteracy OR=1.74,p<0.01) were independently associated with advanced maternal age compared to middle age mothers.this study suggests health awarness programme regarding short inter-pregnancy interval,low pregnancy weight and abortion/miscarriage along with further studies to investigate the adverse effects of tribal areas,Afghan refugee status and paternal illeteracy on maternal health.

4) STUDY OF PAPER MILL FOR END-OF-PIPE TREATMENT WITH PULP RECOVERY

Authors

MUHAMMAD NAFEES, WISAL SHAH, ZAHIDULLAH ,

Abstract

The paper mill plays a big role in contributing pollution load.effluents from paper mill contain high amount of suspended load (chemo-lignin,resduals and fibers etc) which results in the increase of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand(BOD) IN THE WASTEWATER STREAM.PRESENT STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY THE MECHANISM FOR PULP RECOVERY FROM WASTEWATER STREAM For reuse and recycling.A comprehensive waste reduction audit was conducted at paper and board mill situated in hayatabad industrial estate.the main effluent drain of paper mill was sampled and analyzed for pH,CONDUCTIVITY,COLOUR,ODOR,total suspended solids(TSS),Total dissolved solids(TDS),turbidity,alkalinity as CaCO3,BOD5,COD.for pulp removal and recycling jar test was conducted by applying different doses of coagulant and alkalinity.the test for organic contents showed that most of the pulp contents could be separated easily.the various alkalinity and coagulation(alum) provided maximum pulp removal@ of 12 min/m.with the present method pulp matter could be recovered and recycled inside the mill and also facilitates wastewater recycling or safe-disposal.

5) SOIL LOSS CALCULATOR FOR RUNOFF AND SOIL EROSION RISK ON GIVEN SLOPES WITH BARE SOIL AND VEGETATIVE COVER

Authors

NASEER AHMAD, IFTIKHAR A RAJA, QAISER MAHMOOD,

Abstract

Soil erosion is a major global threat to fertile topsoil.pakistan is also facing the problem of soil erosion,where 76% OF TOTAL AREA IS SUBJECTED TO EROSION IN ONE FORM OR THE OTHER.RAINFALL,COUPLED WITH SLOPPY LAND CAN trigger soil losses.there are many techniques to reduce the effect of rainfall;however,the most economical solution is dense vegetative cover.this study was conducted under the climate conditions of pothohar plateaue,Pkistan,to highlight the role of grasses to control surface runoff and sedment losses.we calculated runoff and sediment loss factors,which were used as indicators and set as basic values to measure the rainfall/runoff ratio and sediment losses.by using these values,a simple computer based soil loss calculator was developed to measure erosion risk on given slopes with bare soil or under specific vegetation cover.the software will be useful to predict/calculate the runoff and sediment losses on slopes/water sheds with the angle of slope ranging from 1% to 25% with or without the vegetative cover of V.zizanioides(L.) Nash and S.bengalense Retz.

6) TRACE ELEMENT CONTAMINATION IN DAIRY MILK OF PESHAWAR DISTRICT,PAKISTAN

Authors

BUSHRA IFTIKHAR, S.SHAFIQUR REHMAN, SAMINA SIDDIQUI,

Abstract

Trace elements contamination in cattle milk farmed in urban and rural areas was evaluated.for this purpose,50 fresh milk samples were collected from 3 urban and 2 rural dairy farms and were extracted using wet digestion and analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry for Cd,Cr,Co,Cu,Ni and Pb.lead content remained constant in milk samples of both farms whereas Cd content was significantly greater (p<0.05) in milk samples collected from urban farm than rural farm.nonetheless, Cd,Cr,Co,Cu,Ni concentrations were different in milk samples of urban farms than rural farms.the mean content of Cd and Pb was 35 to 70 and 200 times greater in the dairy cattle milk than maximum allowable limits for same elements for normal milk.the greater content of Cd and Pb in milk samples of urban and rural farms is most likely because of ingesting contaminated soils as both farms are located near roads.

7) INFLENCE OF PEDOGENESIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOILS FORMED AT THE FOOTHILLS OF AMBELA GRANITE COMPLEX-KHYBER PAKHTOONKHWA

Authors

SAMINA SIDDIQUI, W.ALI , S.ALI ,

Abstract

Information about the distribution of total major and trace elements contents, because of pedogenic processes in soil profile formed at the foothill of ambela granite complex is lacking. The object of this study was to study the distribution of Al,Ca,Fe,K,Mg,Si and Cd,Cr,Co,Cu,Mn and Pb because of pedogenic processes in four to six horizons ,A,B1,Bt,B2,Bt2 and C of Alfisols and incenptisols developed at the foothill of Ambela granite complex in sawabi.for this purpose triplicate soil samples were collected from each horizon of soil frofiles in 2009 and were extracted with aqua regia and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and UV-VIS Spectro photometer. Remarkable difference in the distribution of total content of major and trace elements was observed in the B and A+C horizons between alfisols and inceptisols.alfisols showed increase in the total content of Ca and Fe in Bt horizon and was consistent with their clay content.Clay illuviation was the main pedogenic process in alfisols.Abundance of Cr,Co,Cu and Pb in Bt horizon of alfisols is because of leaching.Enrichment of some major and trace elements in B horizon than C horizon of soil profiles suggests that soils are not originally derived from granite.

8) ACHIEVING K-ANONYMITY WITHOUT GENERALIZATION AND SUPPRESSION

Authors

AZHAR RAUF, SAEED MAHFOOZ, SHAH KHUSRO, SHABIR AHMAD,

Abstract

Publication data for analysis purposes and maintaining the privacy of individuals in the published data is the need of the day.one commonly used approach is K-anonymity method.K-anonymity is normally achieved either by generalizing or suppressing the date due to which data utility is compromised.if data is more generalized,less utility of data is achieved and vice versa.in this paper we propose a novel approach which is based on pivot columns in which two tuples having same attribute values are merged into one tuple and then published.our mechanism not only provides protection of individual’s privacy,but also preserves data utility because no generalization and suppression are involved.our algorithm also satisfies the properties of p-sensitivity,I-DIVERSITY AND T-closeness.experiments confirm that our novel approach allows significant and effective data analysis over the conventional method of generalization and suppression.

9) PIM AND SEMANTIC DESKTOP-PAST,PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

Authors

SHAH KHUSRO, AZHAR RAUF, SAEED MAHFOOZ, A MIN TJOA,

Abstract

Communities in the fields of personal information management,semantic web,and sensor & mobile computing develop concepts and mechanisms for handling ever-growing and heterogeneous information corpus,although from different prospective.semantic web aims to make the semantics of web information explicit and thus mashine processable .web information is distributed and mostly public in contrast to personal information which has been mostly considered private, local and segregated.the scope of personal information management varies from simple activities like contact list management to more advanaced and challenging tasks of capturing and managing life-time information for the purpose of providing support to the user. Mobile devices and smartphones are now becoming the most common and ubiquitous devices for handling personal information .These devices usually have several types of built-in sensors which can be used as a rich source of information. As the scale and ambition of PIM increase we see a convergence of these three fields ,with PIM requiring Semantic Web technologies for capturing ,integrating,sharing,and utilizing knowledge in a flexible and powerful way,and Semantic Web requiring the PIM systems as effective peers collaborating on the future web.based on this convergence we review Semantic web technologies and their suitability,usefulness and need in PIM systems.The so-called ‘Semantic Desktop’ term then more accurately reflects the function of such a PIM syste

10) ALLELOPATHY BY SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM L.AGAINST WHEAT AND MUSTARD.

Authors

FARRUKH HUSSAIN, SHAMBALEED HUMAYUN, MUHAMMAD IBRAR, SULTAN M. WAZIR,

Abstract

Saccharum spontaneum L.(family Poaceae) is a perennial common bunch forming grass in Pakistan.the present study was conducted to assess the allelopathic potential of this grass against wheat and mustard.Plant material was collected from Botanical Garden,Azakhel and dried at room temperature (25℃-30℃).Allelophatic studies were conducted by using aqueous extracts from leaves and rhizomes of Saccharum spontaneum and with added litter and mulch.It was seen that aqueous extracts invariably retarded the germination,plumule,radical growth ,fresh and weight of mustard(Brassica campestris) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)in laboratory experiments.The aqueous extracts obtained after 48 h were more inhibitory than 24 h.Rhizomes were more toxic than leaves.it is suggested that the various assayed parts of Saccharum spomtaneum had strong allelopathic potential at least against the tested crop species.further investigation will help identify its allelopathic principals.

11) INVESTIGATION ON WATER MILL(CHARSI JRANDA) CONSTRUCTED ON WASTEWATER DRAIN(GANDA ERAB) IN RELATION TO POLLUTION MITIGATION

Authors

ZAHIDULLAH , MOHAMMAD NAFEES,

Abstract

The present case-study was an attempt to evaluate the role of watermill in minimizing pollution load in the wastewater drain of Peshawar .the watermill is situated near Sahabi village: Akbar-pura and locally it is famous with the name of Charsi-Jranda.the watermill was constructed in early 1940s on Ganda Erab,a swage drain collecting municipal wastewater from Peshawar city.The drain joins Shahalam River and ultimately the main Kabul river about 2 km downstream of the watermill.the watermill was studied for six months;three months of winter season (low flow) and three months of summer (high flow) season.It was found that Charsi Jranda helped to remove 0.78-2.72 kg plastic bags per day,65.6 to 75.1% of suspended solids and 25.1 to 30.7% BOD5 PER DAY.Charsi Jranda was damaged in 1010 flood and that indigenous free treatment facility was vanished.it is recommended that re-construction of the watermill:Charsi Jranda would be environmental friendly;moreover exploring such kind of other indigenous environment friendly and low cost wastewater treatment facilities are need of hour.

Volume No. 34

Issue No. 2