Journal of Law and Society

1) CHILD TRAFFICKING: THE OUTCOME OF POLITICAL FAILURE IN THE REGION
Author(s):Syed Rashid Ali (PhD), Jan Alam and Shah Saud

Abstract :

Children, on the one hand are the future of a nation, while on the other hand they are prone to diverse forms of ills of the society including child trafficking. There are many reasons behind their vulnerability to unwanted situation including the failure of political institution in fulfilling its responsibility to pave the way for better protected environment. The present study aims to analyze the dimension of child trafficking with special emphasis on its political aspect and attempt is made to find out association between political aspect and child trafficking by using statistical techniques. For the present study data is collected from 392 respondents including 116 university faculty, 103 crime reporters, and 173 advocates through a questionnaire, following the reliability test of Cronbach’s Alpha. Statistical analysis is made through Chi Square ( 2  ) and Gamma tests (γ) to see the association between independent and dependent variables. The research reveals that a positive (γ=0.337) and significant (p<0.05) relationship is detected between forced displacement and child trafficking. A positive (γ=0.450) and highly significant (p<0.05) relationship is observed between child soldiering and trafficking. A positive (γ=0.381) and significant (p<0.05) relationship is found between refugee camps and child trafficking. Similarly a positive (γ=0.321) and significant (p<0.05) relationship is found between visa restrictions and child trafficking. Bas
2) IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL RULES OF FORFEITURE ON NATIONAL PROCEEDINGS
Author(s):Dr. Usman Hameed

Abstract :

Forfeiture is a law enforcement device whereby the property used in or derived from the commission of crime can be temporarily attached or permanently confiscated in favour of the state. The UN sponsored International conventions on terrorism and organised crime lay down certain rules to harmonise national forfeiture proceedings to make them conducive to state cooperation. These include rules relating to reversal of the burden of proof and protection of third party rights. Since the rules established by the conventions are excessively deferential to national law, they are unlikely to produce the requisite harmony. The way forward is to require the monitoring agencies to produce model legislations incorporating universal interpretations of the rules set forth by the conventions.
3) WAR ON TERROR AND GWADAR PORT
Author(s):Dr. Kausar Takrim, Dr. Shabir Ahmad and Suleman Ameen

Abstract :

It was in the aftermath of 9/11 incidence that the US & NATO troops invaded the mountains of Afghanistan in 2001. The attack was based on the intelligence reports of the presence of Osama bin Laden in the area. Since this military march into Afghanistan was very notorious, United States rationalized it by the theme of extremism and terrorism out of proportion. United States ( US) invasion of Afghanistan was based on three commonly known purposes, killing of Usama bin Ladan and finishing Taliban regime, approach to energy resources of Central Asian Regeon(CARs) and controlling its routes, and encircling China which it consider a rival to its hegemony. Strategically Gawadr is important as it is lying across the Sea Lanes of Communication (SLOCs) originating out of Hormuz, a strategic point, from where 30% of world’s oil is transported daily. This port can regulate the whole Indian Ocean with the trade courses of Persian Gulf Region, Pacific Rim and far eastern countries. Gwadar port is able to bring change in the strategic environment and economy of the region. China, which is financing the port, is a strong helper in the other associated projects also like railroad links and industrial complexes. Gwadar will not only open China to Arabian Sea through Xinjiang but will also provide her an opportunity to keep a check on sea routes of Indian Ocean. The concerns of the United States of America and India are growing with regards to this Chinese involvement in Pakistan’s Gwadar
4) COMMUNITY PERCEPTION AND AWARENESS TOWARDS HIV/AIDS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHAWA
Author(s):Dr. Muhammad Ibrar, Raazia Hassan Naqvi

Abstract :

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5) AAFIAT - OLD AGE HOME: A PLACE OF CONSOLATION AND SOLACE IN LAHORE DISTRICT, PUNJAB PROVINCE, PAKISTAN.
Author(s):Raazia Hassan Naqvi, Dr. Muhammad Ibrar

Abstract :

Ageing is an accomplishment of progress as escalating long life is one of humankind’s supreme realizations. The study aimed at findings problems of residents of an old age home in Lahore district of Punjab province of Pakistan. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the institution and the respondents and semi structured interview schedule was used to solicit responses from the residents of the old age home. Findings suggested that older persons were living there as their children cannot financially afford them. The residents felt lonely and missed their families while staying at old age home. The respondents also reported that no one from their family visit them at old age home. The implications include among others that the government should increase the number of old age homes in the province and should arrange for non-formal education and skill development classes along with excursion facilities for persons living in old age homes.
6) OVERVIEW OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION, SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY AND LEGAL FACETS OF KHAWAJA SARAS IN PAKISTAN
Author(s):Syeda Kaniz Fatima Haider

Abstract :

The main idea of this research paper is to explain the sexual orientation sex reassignment surgery and legal facets of Khawaja saras of Pakistan. Two gender identity sub-systems in any human being were assumed as Masculine and Feminine. In this study the strength of both subsystems are related to the degree of gender dysphoria. It also aims to observe the religious beliefs and its impact on the decision of sex change surgery. It further investigates the effects of family religious teachings on formulating the self-concept of these Khawaja saras.
7) UNDERSTANDING THE EXPOSURE & LIABILITIES OF DIRECTORS, UNDER THE CORPORATE LAW OF PAKISTAN
Author(s):Ashraf Ali, Syed Raza Shah Gilani, Suhail Shahzad andMian M Saleem

Abstract :

The Company Directors are sole responsible for the administration and performance of a company. They are also bound to control and manage the assets of a company. Moreover, it is the discretion of Directors to determine the business transactions in corporate sector and to determine the future of the company. Company Directors are responsible for the management of the company. They must act in a way most likely to promote the success of the business and benefits of the shareholders. They have also responsibilities to the company’s employees, its trading partner and the state. As a director you need wide powers to help you promote the company, however in case of abuse of these powers, the directors face serious consequences.
8) THE PREVENTION OF AIDS/HIV: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF ISLAMIC VALUES AND PRACTICES
Author(s):Hamid Alam, Dr. Muhammad Saeed and Sajjad Hussain

Abstract :

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) has become a medical threat to the survival of human beings. Transfusion of AIDS virus may cause due to drug addiction through needles, use of unsterilized equipments, AIDS affected blood transfusion and interaction as well as illicit sexual relations etc. Anti HIV/Aids vaccine are expensive and also yield poor results. Present study was conducted to know the role of Islamic values in AIDS prevention. Secondary data is reviewed for this paper due to lack of potential respondents. Due to the observance of Islamic values a little population of Muslims are suffering from AIDS as compare to non Muslims. Regarding the prevention of HIV/AIDS the practice of circumcision, ban on unnatural sex and extra marital relations, loyalty and sincerity to wife, punishment for sexual offenders and polygamy for sexual satisfaction are contributing in the prevention of AIDS and the avoidance of pornography.
10) THE EMERGENCE OF THE RULE OF LAW AND POLICING IN PAKISTAN A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
Author(s):Dr. Arab Naz, Gohar Saeed, Waqar Ahmad,Dr. Salman Bangash and Nasar Khan

Abstract :

The law enforcement mechanisms including policing in Pakistan in particular is perceived to be the most corrupt and ineffective system that has itself created conditions for the breakdown of law and order situation in the country. This trampling of law and order situation is, nonetheless backed by a multiplicity of factors ranging from historical internal transitions within the system per se to a panoply of overwhelming external socio-political and culturally backed drivers such as the incompatibility between policy recommendations and practical implementation. The current study was, however, delimited to initiate a historical content analysis of the evolution of police and policing in Pakistan from the colonial era to the current police system. The available literature has been analyzed in its utmost with a particular focus on police reforms in Pakistan across its history. The paper concludes that since independence, multiple reforms and changes had been proposed for the effectiveness of police system in the country, no or less attention has however, been given to the implementation of such policies and reforms.
11) THE “DOCTRINE OF ULTRA VIRES” AND ITS SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE FRAME WORK OF COMPANY LAW.
Author(s):Syed Raza Shah Gilani, Ashraf Ali, Suhail Shahzad

Abstract :

The phrase Ultra vires is a combination of Latin words which refers to “Exceed of Authority”. It introduce us to certain limitations provided by law .Where an act for which certain limitations are prescribed by law that certain act must done within these legal limits. Whenever an act is done while transcending the authority conferred by law, it is known as the doctrine of ultra vires this literally means “Beyond the Powers or Authority”. On contrary to it, is the doctrine of “Intra Vires” which means within the power or authority as provided by the law?
13) DETERMINING THE RELATION BETWEEN INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN EMERGING ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
Author(s):Amir Hussain, Ismaile Shah, Dr. Zia Obaid and Mehnaz Gul

Abstract :

The major objectives of the research are to determining the relationship of employment and inflation in Pakistan and its impact on the overall economy of the country. The research is quantitative in nature and because of its nature only secondary data is used. The time period of the research study is 24 years i.e. from 1990-2013. The data is taken from trading economics of Pakistan website that will provide us sound information about the analytical position for the purpose of observing unemployment rates, inflation and GDP. Using simple linear regression model the study will analyze the explanatory variables inflation, unemployment and GDP of Pakistani economy. Correlation Analysis is also used in the study for the purpose to explain the correlation between the unemployment and inflation and GDP of the economy. Regression analysis and T-test is also carried out in the research study. After the analysis of quantitative and extra data linked to rising of the prices, unemployment and Gross Domestic Product the results obtained showed that the impact of inflation on unemployment is significant. The results also indicated that there is a large gap in the rising prices (inflation) minimum and maximum principles and this gap describes that rising prices in Pakistan is unreliable and very highly unpredictable. The results obtained also indicate that the relation between inflation and unemployment is positive and unimportant and also describes unimportant relation
14) GRACE MELBURY: “MODERN NERVES WITH PRIMITIVE FEELINGS”
Author(s):Dr. Shazia Ghulam Mohammad

Abstract :

Grace Melbury occupies a special place among Thomas Hardy’s female protagonists for her unique ways of thinking and complex personality. The Woodlanders presents the dilemma of a woman caught between the two worlds—a rustic world of Hintock and urban world. She keeps oscillating between her primitive yearnings and modern knowledge of newly acquired tastes. Uncertain of her rational inclination and primitive feelings, she chooses a wrong direction. Her marriage with Dr. Fitzpiers turns out to be disastrous as he appeals to the superficial layer of her being which is at war with her essential self. A womanentangled in the mesh of uncertainty and apprehensions- loses her hold on rational as well as irrational side of her psyche; hence leading to her ultimate failure. Apparently conforming to social norms, she proves herself to be inherently antagonistic to them. This paper explores the underlying reasons that account for Grace’s psychological complexity. The psychological probing is undertaken to show her complex mental make up which is the root cause of her anxieties and frustration.
15) THE MERCHANT OF VENICE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL DIALOGUE BETWEEN ‘I’ AND THE ‘OTHER’
Author(s):Atteq ur Rahman, Dr. Shazia Ghulam Mohammad

Abstract :

The Merchant of Venice by Shakespeare seems to be a psychological dialogue between the believer and the non-believer. Each confrontation is but an outcome of inner conflict which manifests itself in an external clash of values between individuals or nations. Shakespeare dramatizes this religious, cultural and social clash of values in the character portrayal of Antonio, who stands for Christian faith, and Shylock, who represents Jewish creed. The story involves a life-death struggle between the two in the Hegelian sense. The question that perplexes the reader’s mind is who is believer and who is the non-believer in the play? Both of them are believers in their own estimation of themselves and adhere to their religious beliefs. Each of them sees the other as a non believer; hence negating each other’s identities. The two I’s come in clash which triggers a movement towards self assertion. This paper explores the tussle between ‘I’ and the ‘Other’ 2 in order to find out who is unconscious of himself and who lacks self knowledge?
16) PEER GROUP RESPONSIBLE FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENCY (With special reference to central jail Peshawar)
Author(s):Dr. Akhtar Ali, Shehzad Humayun

Abstract :

The present study entitled peer group responsible for juvenile delinquency was conducted with special reference to District Peshawar Jail. A sample size of 240 respondents were selected through purposive sampling procedure by the criteria designed by Sekran (2003), who had stated that, a sample size between 50 to 500 can give appropriate results. For collection of primary data, interview schedule was used in the study area.The phenomenal aspect of the study were determined by carrying out the percentage and frequencies . Dependent variable (Juvenile delinquency) and independent variable (peer group) were measured by using Chi-square test. The study disclosed about the perception of respondents when they asked about, do you have any friends circle surrounding you. The association with juvenile delinquency was found as significant (P < 0.05). Similarly, the study displayed about the perception of respondents when they offered a next question that, do most of the time you spend with your friends. A significant (P < 0.05) association was detected with juvenile delinquency. In addition, the study further revealed about the perception of respondents when they were hit by another question that, does your friends use drug i.e. cigarettes, snuff, hash or wine etc. As a result, a significant (P < 0.05) connection was recorded with juvenile delinquency. In the same way, the study manifested about the perception of respondents when they interrogated that, have your a

Volume No. 45

Issue No. 65, January 2014

January 2014