Central Asia

1) Regional Integration in Central and South Asia: Open Regionalism
Author(s):Shabir Ahmad Khan & Zahid Ali Khan Marwat

Abstract :

Regionalism (regional integration) has gained much attention particularly amongst the peripheral regions to address the challenges of globalization imposed by the core regions, to tackle the issues of under-development and to arrest the process of further marginalization. Central and South Asia are the least integrated regions in the world. However the regions possess greatest potential for regionalism due to a number of factors including huge energy resources but high differences in resource endowment, trade and economic complementarity, vast but contiguous landmass, gravitational pull of geographical proximity on movement of goods, common culture and history, and having identical political and economic challenges. Basic structure for regional integration has been framed on the principles of open regionalism in the forms of Regional Trade Arrangements/Agreements (RTAs). The framework of Regional Integration Arrangements (RIAs) includes RTAs regarding energy trade i.e. agreements on pipelines and trade in goods i.e. bilateral, trilateral and multilateral trade agreements. The process will gain momentum by prioritizing economic interests over the regional geopolitics shaped by the extra-regional states having political stakes in the region. Regional states need to focus on the ‘functional area’ i.e. energy, for providing base to regional integration inter and intra-regionally.
2) Linkage between the Great October Revolution and the Saur Revolution of Afghanistan and its effects on Pakistan
Author(s):Rifat Sardar

Abstract :

It has been 39 years since the then Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979 in order to protect the communist regime- a communist regime which got inspiration from the Great October Revolution in Russia. To many, the Saur Revolution in Afghanistan was another attempt by the Soviet Union to export communism to other countries. However the famous historian Peter Kenez says that the Soviet standing in world affairs was not based on ideological appeal, but on military strength.1 At the end of the Brezhnev era, when the Soviet economy ceased to perform well and the political system was troubled, the Soviet Union possessed an influence in the international arena that neither it nor its predecessor, imperial Russia, had ever before achieved. By sending Soviet troops into Afghanistan, the Soviet Union wanted to support the Saur revolution through its military might. However there is no denying the fact that many youth, including Nur Mohammad had been trained in the Communist ideology. So the Great October Revolution in Russia influenced the Saur Revolution- the Communist revolution in Afghanistan.
3) Merger of Crimea into Russia: Implications for Post-Soviet States
Author(s):Sarwat Rauf

Abstract :

The study probes into the causes and effects of Ukrainian crisis and merger of Crimea into Russia. It also endeavours to examine the implications for post-Soviet states. It is pointed out that external forces' competition of power combined with internal political conflicts have triggered the Ukrainian crisis and resulted into the fragmentation of Ukraine. Here, the entrenched causes of hostility between Russia and Ukraine are studied in the context of Eurasianism. An effort is made in addition to highlight Russia's foreign policy towards the post-Soviet republics in which Moscow seeks the support of the latter in the wake of the Ukraine crisis. Moscow’s grand strategy to exert influence on the ex-Soviet Union states and protect the Russian-speaking population in and around Russia was a prima facie case to merge Crimea. Therefore, the logic of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) approach serves as a good pretext to cover Russia’s action in Ukraine. Subsequently, the former Soviet states have come to adopt wary approach towards Russia. Finally, the paper will offer a futuristic outlook of Russian relations with the post-Soviet states.
4) FATA as an Ungoverned Territory: a Study into Governance, Security and Terrorism
Author(s):Asghar Khan

Abstract :

This paper investigates whether FATA is an ungoverned territory or not? And if yes, then why and how it is posing threat to the security of Pakistan and the region in general. It is based on analysis of FATA as an ungoverned territory that poses threat to domestic and regional security and stability. Since Cold War, the focus of scholars remained on threat emanating from failed states to the regional and international security. Recently, this focus has been shifted to ungoverned territories within viable states. Today it is believed that security problems, such as militancy, terrorism, insurgency, civil conflicts, humanitarian crises, refugee flows, drug smuggling, and piracy are originating from these territories due to the absence or collapse of state authority. Since 9/11, the problem of dealing with ungoverned territories has taken on increased urgency because terrorists and militants are using these sanctuaries present in the remote regions of the world for launching devastating attacks. A two pronged theoretical framework has been adopted for this paper, firstly identifying and gauging whether FATA is an ungoverned territory or not? And secondly, the paper analyzes various attributes under dimensions of un-governability and conduciveness of FATA as ungoverned territory posing security threats. Finally, the paper derives the implications of the analysis for Pakistani state control to deal with FATA. The paper presents strategies to improve the Pakistani state ability to
5) Local Government System in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan: Past, Present and Future
Author(s):Rahman Ullah

Abstract :

Although Pakistani Pakhtun-tribal belt or the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) is part of Pakistan yet it is governed differently from the rest of the country through the colonial era regulation known as Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) 1901. Local government system, which is considered as nursery for a participatory system of governance has never been introduced until lately in the FATA. Therefore, the tribal people have remained deprived of their rudimentary right of self-governance. However, the process of introducing local government began in FATA when the former President General (Retired) Pervez Musharraf pledged in January 2002 to have elected municipal councils in the FATA. Thus in 2002 the first draft for the current Local Government Regulation was prepared. Then in 2004, Local Bodies (LBs) polls with limited participation of tribal people were held in the FATA. More recently in 2012, another Local Government Regulation was drafted but the tribesmen are still waiting for the promulgation of an Ordinance, Act or Regulation for materialising the system in FATA. This paper attempts to analyse administrative structure of FATA and the importance of local government system as a basic step to introducing participatory governance and thereby bringing the FATA to the mainstream politics. The broader approach of the paper remains democracy where people share the right of rulership in a nation state and the theory of human development presented by Dr. Mebabul Haq and
6) Kabul River and Pak-Afghan Relations
Author(s):Suliman Yousaf

Abstract :

Kabul River which originates in the mountains, North West of the city of Paghman, flows east and a few miles short of the Pak-Afghan border is joined by River Kunar. Later on it flows into Pakistan near Warsak. River Kunar which feeds most of the water to river Kabul has more water than the original Kabul River. River Kunar flows from Chitral to Afghanistan near Arandu in Chitral, and it becomes River Kunar. Kabul River is a life line of Peshawar Valley. Areas of Daudzai, Do Aba, and areas south of Peshawar all depend on water from River Kabul. Kabul River after entering Pakistan, divides into four tributaries that is why it irrigates a vast area of Peshawar Valley. With global warming, and rapid climate change the water level is decreasing rapidly, whereas population is increasing in both Afghanistan and Pakistan. With the increase in population demand for food is also increasing, more land needs to be brought under cultivation to produce more food so the demand for water is also increasing. There is pressure on land and water in both Pakistan and Afghanistan to get more food and feed their people. And for this both countries require water. Afghanistan with Indian assistance is building 12 dams on Kunar River (Kabul River). This would affect the flow of water to Pakistan, which would affect irrigation in Peshawar Valley. Since a large section of the population in Peshawar valley depend upon irrigation from Kabul River, this could lead to political unrest and could affect rel

Volume No. 80

Issue No. Summer 2017