Journal of Science and Technology

1) ENTEROPARASITIC HELMINTHES INFECTIONS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND SOME UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN PESHAWAR
Author(s):AKRAM SHAH, NADIA AKBAR,

Abstract :

The present survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school going children and some University students of Peshawar. During the study, 200 fecal specimens were examined from December 2010 to July 2011 at Different schools and some University students of Peshawar city. Stool analysis was performed by direct microscopic examination. Out of 200 subjects examined, 23 (11.5%) were found harboring Helminths parasites. Hymenolepis nana was more prevalent (8%) in whole survey as compared to other helminthse.g.,Ascarislumbricoides (1.5%), Enterobiusvermicularis (1.5%) and Trichuristrichiura (0.5%). Statistically no significant difference (χ2=6.88, df=3, α=0.05) was found in the infection rate in different age groups. Among Protozoa the commonest and non-pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba coli were more prevalent (66%), than Entamoebahistolytica (32%) and Giardia lamblia (17.5%). Statistically there was no association (χ2=6.528, df=3, α=0.05) of protozoan parasitic infection with age. The frequency of helminth parasite infections is lower in Peshawar city may be due to improved socio-economic status, health education, and comparatively good sanitation system.
2) FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT IN SELECTED UNION COUNCILS OF DISTRICT SWAT, PAKISTAN
Author(s):AMIR NAWAZ KHAN, SHAH NAWAZ KHAN, KIFAYAT ULLAH KHAN, ANDATTA-UR-RAHMAN

Abstract :

Almost every year millions of people suffered from flood worldwide generally, and in Pakistan particularly.Identification of flood risk is very important and it is need of the day. This study is carried out to analyze the risk of flood hazard for the most beautiful districtof Pakistan (district swat). Risk of riverine flood is common in the area. Main objectives of the study are to identify the probability of a flood occurrence, assess level of vulnerability and exposedness to flood hazard and to quantify the flood risk in the study area. To achievethe purpose, data were collected from both primary and secondary sources, in which primary data includes questionnaire, focused grouped discussion, interview and personal observation while secondary data was collected from line agencies like irrigation department, housing departments, metrological office etc. Three Union Councilswere selected. 50 questionnaires were filled by key-informants, in each Union Council (UC). Analyzed data presented in the form of graphs. Informationreveals thatthe study area is prone flood hazard. Causes of floods include snow melting, monsoon rain and climate change. Vulnerability of the special people (vulnerable people) is high. There are limited capacities like swimming skills and trained people found in the area. On average farmland, settlements and water mills are considered as element at risk while Union Councils Dhamghar,Dherai and Kanju facing high, medium and low level of vulnerability respecti
3) ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN AFGHAN REFUGEE CAMP, DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
Author(s):MUHAMMAD ZIAD, SALMA KHALID, ALIA NAZ, WISAL SHAH, ABDULLAH KHAN, AYAZ KHAN, ZIAUR REHMAN

Abstract :

The present study was conducted at Panian-1 Afghan refugee camps of District Haripur for the Purpose to evaluate the quality of drinking water. Total of twenty one water samples were randomly collected from hand pumps, containers and tube wells which are the main sources of water used by the local community. Eleven samples were collected at storage point i.e. (containers in which community stored water) and twelve were collected from hand pumps while two of the samples were collected from the main tube wells. The collected samples were then analysed for selected physical (Turbidity, pH, EC, TDS, taste, colour and odour) chemical (Fluoride, Nitrate) and biological (Total coliform, E. coli ) properties. According to this study, water sources were found more contaminated and did not meet the safe limits for drinking water as described in the WHO guidelines. The ratio of bacteriological contamination i.e. in 53% of the samples T. Coliform while in 47% of the samples E.coli was detected. In 53% of samples T. Coliform while in 47% of samples E. coli were found . Major causes of water contamination were found poor water quality (41%), improper sanitation system (37%), open defecation (12%) and unhygienicconditions (8%).All these factors contributing major threats to the local community in form of water borne diseases such as diarrhoea, typhoid, hepatitis, skin diseases, and cholera.
4) STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF ONE-STEP PIGMENT DYEING AND DURABLE PRESS FINISHING OF POLYESTER/COTTON BLENDED SHEETING FABRICS WITH VARIOUS CROSSLINKING AGENTS
Author(s):SHABANA RAFIQUE, SHAHNAZ PARVEEN KHATTAK, TANVEER HUSSAIN, BASHIR AHMAD, FARHAT SHAHZAD

Abstract :

Pigment dyeing of Polyester/Cotton (P/C) blended fabrics was carried out by a conventional padding method, incorporated with various crosslinkers and two different binders at 70 %wet pick-up and constant thermo-fixation temperature. The aim of pigment dyeing in conjuction with resin finishing was not only to save time, cost of production and energy, but maintaining the durability of the fabric too. In the current study, the tensile and tear strength properties of treated specimens were evaluated, based on the effect of different types of binders and crosslinkers. The results clearly reveals a non-significant decreasing trend in the tensile strength of fabrics with the cross-linkers, however one of them i.e. modified dihydroxyethylene urea (DHEU) provoked excellent tensile strength in fabrics. According to the findings, CL5, a highly etherified melamine compound remained beneficial in augmenting the tear strength of pigment dyed fabrics, while the minimum tear strength was acquired by the CL1 (Dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea) treated fabric. In general, the alliance of acrylate copolymer binder with pigment colourant, and the modified DHEU cross-linker showed a compatibility with each other in persisting the desirable tensile and tear strength of P/C fabrics.

Volume No. 38

Issue No. 1

Vol. 38 No. 1