Ancient Pakistan

1) Skeletal Analysis of Gandharan Graves at Shah Mirandeh, Singoor, Chitral
Author(s):Brian E. Hemphill, Muhammad Zahir and Ihsan Ali

Abstract :

Archaeologists have long considered the Gandharan Grave Culture to be an intrusive technocultural complex in northwestern South Asia and have often equated its presence at the nexus between Central, South, and West Asia with the arrival of Indo-Aryan populations south of the Hindu Kush. Such assertions are largely based upon material cultural parallels with assemblages recovered from sites located in northwestern Iran (i.e, Tepe Hissar) or southern Central Asia (i.e., Bactria-Margianan Archaeological Complex). Recent discoveries of Gandharan Grave Culture sites in Chitral District attest that this archaeological culture encompassed a larger geographic region than previously understood. The current study provides foundational skeletal descriptions for 18 individuals recovered from Gandharan Grave Culture funerary features at the site of Shah Mirandeh, located near Chitral town, Chitral District. These individuals were recovered from an array of burial contexts ranging from intact primary inhumations to highly disturbed secondary inhumations of the commingled remains of multiple individuals. The 18 individuals include five males, three females and 10 individuals of unknown sex. Ages at death range from infancy to mature adults. Pathological conditions were generally rare and most often affected then dentition, being manifested as caries and linear enamel hypoplasia. Both conditions likely reflect the consumption of a diet highly reliant upon such domesticated cult
2) The Description of Sāgala (present-day Sialkot) in an Ancient Buddhist Text
Author(s):Annette Schmiedchen

Abstract :

An elaborate description of Sāgala as an ideal type of city is contained in the Milindapañha, “The Questions of King Milinda”, namely in the introductory story of this Buddhist text. Although being highly stereotyped, the description offers valuable clues regarding the ideals of urban planning in the north of ancient Pakistan. This account, like the more general depictions of city life in the text, reveals the wellplanned and cosmopolitan character of towns in the north of Pakistan in the last century BCE and the first centuries CE.
3) Consular Diptychs and Buddhist Diptychs: Another Way of Exploring Western Elements in Gandhara Art
Author(s):Muhammad Hameed

Abstract :

The work in hand discusses the usage of diptych type objects in Western world and in Gandhara. The basic purpose of the research is to determine the origin of diptychs in this part of the world that when and why such objects were manufactured in Gandhara? To answer these questions diptychs in the Western World, referred to as the ‘Consular Diptychs’, are examined. The study throws light on their origin, function, shape, technique, material, iconography and significance. Comparative study of similarities and dissimilarities between the Western diptychs and the Gandharan diptychs is also a part of the investigation through which an attempt has also been made to establish a link between these two traditions. Moreover, final statement is formulated regarding origin of diptych type objects in Gandhāra. At the end, the Basket Man Type Buddhist Diptychs are discussed. This section primarily introduces these diptychs along with description of their iconographic details. Examples from Gandhāran reliefs are also included to analyze pictorial representation.
4) Estimation of Economic Value of an Archaeological Site: A Case Study of Takht-i Bahi
Author(s):Javed Iqbal, Younas Khan, Zahoorul Haq, Hayley Hesseln and Ziaullah

Abstract :

Non-market valuations have taken a central role in valuing sites for which markets generally do not exist. It is important to place a value on a site – recreational or archaeological – for making policies regarding preservation and others relating to it. This study uses a travel cost method to value the Takht-i Bahi archaeological site, located in the province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Primary data were collected from the visitors through a well-structured questionnaire. Various econometric specifications were estimated such as Ordinary Least Square (OLS), poisson and negative bionomial to estimate the impact of various factors on the visitation rate. The consumer surplus per person per visit was calculated to be Rs. 2132 approximately equal to 20 US dollars and the total value of the site was found to be Rs. 7,808,102 approximately equal to 74,719 US dollars. The study provides both theoretical and an empirical methods to place a value on a public site, which would help evaluate. Placing a value on a site of public interest helps to evaluate the expected revenue generated from them and provide guidance about spending on improvements and maintenance of the site. This type of study can be replicated in other areas of cultural and educational importance as policies relating to such sites increasingly depend on their accurate valuations.
5) Stucco Buddha Images surrounded by Double Haloes: Recent Discoveries at Bhamāla (Taxila)
Author(s):Abdul Hameed, Shakirullah, Abdul Samad and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer

Abstract :

Bhamāla, one of the most important Buddhist establishments is located on the right bank of the Haro river in the Khānpur region of Taxila Valley. Recent Excavations at the site have brought to light many remarkable discoveries, which include the earliest monumental Parinirvāṇa statue of the Buddha, the terracotta sculptures, coins and other metal objects. The present research is focuses on the Buddha images in stucco surrounded with nimbus and aureole which are very rare in and outside the Gandhāra region
6) A Note on the Swat ‘Fashion Ware’: Its Origin and Diffusion
Author(s):Luca Maria Olivieri

Abstract :

The note deals with a luxury ware associated to the latest phases of the Early Historic urban site of Barikot, Swat (Pakistan). These phases are positively dated to mid-3nd century CE and associated to a Kushano-Sasanian cultural horizon. The luxury painted ware, denoted as ‘Fashion Ware’, was first found at Damkot (Swat), and collected from surface in Bajaur. A similar pottery was found in the past in later contexts in Rajasthan and Haryana.
7) The Tradition of Buddhist Narrative Illustration in the Swat Valley
Author(s):Muhammad Sher Ali Khan

Abstract :

The Swat valley has an important role in the development of Buddhist art. The religious imageries and biographical scenes of the Buddha were carved in stone that embellished the sacred buildings and were replicated as a standard schema of architectural decoration. With its turbulent political and social history, the region was not only graced with several religious constructions all over the valley but also expanded biographical story of the Buddha almost to length of its completion by introducing fresh scenes during their respective turns of each ethnic and political group. The material excavated by archaeologists records the political, social and religious history. Based on these cultural material and extensive studies, this paper investigates the evolution and development of narrative art in the Swat valley. The results show that biographical narrative illustrations extended through the ages help in understanding Buddhist iconography in cultural preferences and innovative approaches of visual story-telling.
8) A Note on the Grey Stucco Capitals from Patakā (Swāt)
Author(s):Nidaullah Sehrai

Abstract :

The stucco capitals and reliefs externally coated with a thin grey layer are occasionally found at archaeological sites in the valleys of Peshawar, Taxila and Swāt. Decorating stucco images with various colours to enhance their beauty was a normal practice of the artists. But decorating them with grey colour is something different, for, dull grey colour could not make them look more beautiful than white/creamy stucco. What then was the reason behind it? Were they meant to pass off as the real stuff of schist, or do they mark a phase of transition from schist to stucco? This note is an attempt to address these questions with particular reference to the capitals found at Patakā (Swāt).
9) A New Hoard from Tibba Pīr Abdul Rehman, Jhang (Punjab), Pakistan: A Preliminary Report
Author(s):Gul Rahim Khan and Muhammad Hasan

Abstract :

A hoard consisting of 180 gold and 65 silver coins along with two gold ornaments has recently been reported from Pīr Abdul Rehman, an old village in Ahmadpur Siāl Tehsil, district Jhang, Punjab (Pakistan). It is an interesting and valuable discovery made in this part of Punjab. It represents the coins of five dynasties of different origin. Most of these dynasties were contemporaries, while the Late Kushans were somewhat earlier. In this respect, it helps to know about the sequence and chronology of various dynasties. The coins obviously indicate its deposition during the later decades of the 5th century CE.
10) Rescuing from Oblivion: Ahmad Hasan Dani and Study of the Indus Civilization
Author(s):Rafiullah Khan and Ifqut Shaheen

Abstract :

This article focusses on Ahmad Hasan Dani’s association with his studies on the Indus Valley Civilization. Two significant events have been explored and investigated with the help of primary documents available at the Taxila Institute of Asian Civilizations, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. The first event relates to organizing a symposium on the Indus Civilization in 1979 within the framework of UNESCO’s study programme for the civilizations of Central Asia. The second point of examination is the now popular book, titled Indus Civilization: New Perspectives, edited by Dani in 1981. Both academic and professional as well as political considerations involved therein with a special concentration of Dani’s role have been explored.

Volume No. 28

Issue No. XXVIII

ANCIENT PAKISTAN
Volume XXVIII – 2017

Professor Muhammad Nasim Khan Felicitation Number

Editor
Mukhtar Ali Durrani, PhD

Co-Editor
Ibrahim Shah, PhD

Research Bulletin of the Department of Archaeology
University of Peshawar