Ancient Pakistan

1) The Quest for Harappans in Northern Balochistan, Pakistan: Initial Results and Understandings of the First Systematic Transect Survey in Tehsil Bori, District Loralai
Author(s):Muhammad Zahir and Muhammad Adris Khan

Abstract :

District Loralai, located in the northeast of Balochistan Province of Pakistan, has received little attention of the historians and archaeologists. Most of the written or oral histories of the region do not go beyond 14th century CE. However, this region enjoys a pivotal position in Balochistan, as it connects South Asia with Central Asia. Previous archaeological research works by foreign and local archaeologists have led to the documentation of 25 archaeological sites in the district. Most of previous surveys in Balochistan province, and especially in District Loralai, have been carried out on village-to-village based methodologies and ease of access. The present systematic transect survey, the first of its kind in Balochistan, was carried out in Tehsil Bori of District Loralai, with the aim of documenting the settlement history of the region and landscape choices in the past, and to investigate the presence of Harappans in the study region, which researchers in the past, such as Fairservis (1959), have suggested as marginal and not representative. The present systematic survey of 10 transects revealed 26 archaeological sites, doubling the archaeological knowledge of the region. These sites included 8 single period sites, 13 multi-period sites, 6 Kot Diji period sites and 5 Harappan/Indus Civilization sites. The discovery of relatively large number of Kot Dijian and Harappan period sites in a limited surveyed area suggests that Harappan presence in District Loralai was not
2) Origins and Interactions of the Ethnic Groups of Greater Dardistan I: A Tooth Size Allocation Analysis of the Khow of Chitral District
Author(s):Brian E. Hemphill

Abstract :

This study has two objectives. The first is to assess allocation of tooth size across the permanent dentition of Khow females and males. The second is to investigate Khow biological origins in light of three models offered for the population history of Greater Dardistan. Mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the permanent teeth were measured among 209 Khow volunteers. Principal component analysis was used to assess variation in the patterning of tooth size among Khow females and males. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine the accuracy of identifying Khows odontometrically by sex. Khows were compared to members of six living peninsular Indian ethnic groups and 12 sex–pooled prehistoric samples. Group centroids from canonical variates were plotted in three dimensions to assess similarities among samples. Principal components analysis identifies tooth size allocation differences between Khow females and males. Discriminant functions identify sex correctly in 74-83% of Khows. Canonical variates identify Khows as possessing closer affinities to prehistoric Central Asians than to prehistoric inhabitants of the Indus Valley or living peninsular Indian ethnic groups. Tooth size allocation analysis identifies systemic differences among females and males of living South Asian ethnic groups. Khows possess tooth size allocation patterns most similar to Central Asians, but not to BMAC samples. Hence, the Aryan Invasion model is not supported. Affinities between Khow
3) New Light on Ancient Gandhāra
Author(s):Abdur Rahman

Abstract :

History of Gandhāra is a well known subject. But considerable gaps, which could be filled in by correctly interpreting place-names, still exist. Here, for the first time, an attempt is made to interpret place-names, which throw light on various missing chapters of the history of Gandhāra. Similarly the name, Gandhāra, and its etymology is explained in the light of geographical environment in which it was located. It has also been suggested that Buddhism spread at the grass roots levels by the keen interest of some of the local chiefs who used their utmost financial resources to raise stupas and monasteries now witnessed in the galaxy of ruined structures found throughout the length and breadth of Gandhāra.
4) Physiology and Meaning of Pottery Deposits in Urban Contexts (Barikot, Swat): Archaeological Field Notes with an Addendum on the lásana/λάσανα Pottery Forms
Author(s):Luca M. Olivieri

Abstract :

The article, which is based on the Author’s field notes, and on the analysis of the Early Historic/Historic ceramic data from Barikot, Swat, focuses on the nature and archaeological significance of pottery deposits at the site. The article includes a short note on a rare vessel type whose function has been often misinterpreted.
5) Three Rare Gandharan Terracotta Plaques of Hellenistic Origin in the Lahore Museum: Were these plaques mobile models of travelling foreign artists?
Author(s):Rifaat Saif Dar

Abstract :

This paper presents a study of three small terracotta plaques in the Gandhara Collection of the Lahore Museum – each with a different scene in low relief and each being a cast from a single-mould. The scenes depicted are purely classical in theme and Hellenistic in form and execution. No such scene has so far been found from any other site in Gandhara. According to the available information in the record of the Lahore Museum, these plaques were procured about 96 years ago from some unknown site in the Peshawar Valley and were deposited in the Lahore Museum. For a long time, they remained hidden from the eyes of curators until 2006 when they were identified with those briefly described, but not illustrated, by Sir John Marshall in 1922. They are being studied here in some detail for the first time. The technique of making these hand-pressed casts is the subject of this article together with making such tiny moulds and the role of their casts as travelling models of art work. Attempt is also made to show what other comparable objects can be identified with examples available in Gandhara or within its cultural peripheries as having been copied from such mobile prototypes.
6) A New Kushan Hoard from Ray Dheri, Abazai (Charsadda, Pakistan)
Author(s):Gul Rahim Khan and Mukhtar Ali Durrani

Abstract :

A Late Kushan hoard containing gold and copper coins was found by a landowner in his fields at Ray Dheri (low mound), Charsadda. It was unearthed a few years back but was first shown to the authors in the summer 2017. This hoard contained 56 gold coins and a larger number of copper coins. The authors got the opportunity to examine a small portion of the hoard, i.e. a quarter of the gold and some of the copper coins. The gold coins are mostly imitations of Vasudeva I issued by the Kushano-Sasanian kings from Bactria and the copper coins belong to the reign of Kanishka II, the successor of Vasudeva I. It is very interesting to see that the gold and copper coins were of the same period. The latest contents of the hoard suggest that it was deposited in the mid-3rd century CE.
7) Bhamāla Excavations 2015-16: A Preliminary Report
Author(s):Abdul Hameed, Shakirullah, Abdul Samad and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer

Abstract :

The World Heritage site of Bhamala is located on the right bank of the Haro River. This important Buddhist establishment was for the first time excavated by Sir John Marshall in 1930-31. Field investigations at the site were resumed in 2012-13 by the Department of Archaeology, Hazara University (Mansehra), in collaboration with the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (hereafter KP) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA). The said institutions continued their field work till 2016 with financial support of the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of KP. Preliminary reports of the work of the first two seasons (i.e. 2012-13 and 2014-15) have been published in Frontier Archaeology (volumes 9 and 10) (Samad et al. 2017a, b). The present report focuses on the discoveries made during the field work of 2015-16 season.
8) Multiple-Perspective and Spatial domains of the Islamic Art
Author(s):Mamoona Khan

Abstract :

Multiple-perspective is a novelty introduced by the Muslim artists to represent the spatial domains of reality in its totality. But derogatory remarks are usually attached to this art by western critics, who habitually view things through the lens of corporeal vision. They elevated one, two or three points perspectives as the only way to represent the physical world, ignoring altogether vision beyond the scientific. In order to get a proper comprehension of spatial representation in the Muslim Art, miniature paintings need to be thoroughly analyzed. Thus, multiple points of vision, through which Persian as well as Mughal miniatures are composed, will be explicated in this paper through formal and textual analysis, to investigate true context of its use. Miniature painting being court art, patronized by the ruling classes, is replete with minute details, essential to describe court splendour that would have vanished if veiled under illusions of recession or depth. While multiple-perspective ensures the capacity to retain that splendour and portray tangible and intangible domains of realty. It is the very reason that Muslim artists preferred to remain committed throughout to the path of multiple perspective, once explored by their cerebrating brains.
9) The Bradlaugh Hall Building (1900): A Neglected Historical Monument in the Walled City of Lahore
Author(s):Ayesha Mehmood Malik, Muhammad Nasir Chaudhry and Syed Sajjad Haider

Abstract :

Lahore is known as a city that holds through time, capturing and conserving the intelligent human growth in structural standing. The diversity of Lahore culture is unimaginable so is its architecture that unfortunately has affected some of these historical buildings badly in terms of its functional form. Due to this a public disconnect between the value of history and its function is found. This paper is an attempt to identify one such neglected legacy in the form of Bradlaugh Hall that holds a history of the Indian struggle against the British rule. A striking amalgamation of Victorian and Muslim-Indian design. However, it was locked down after the partition of India and was later allotted to a technical Institute by the Evacuee Trust Properties Board (ETPB). This paper discusses the architectural significance of the Bradlaugh building and the role of ETPB, especially with regards to the protection of buildings like the Bradlaugh Hall and many other buildings that need special attention. The study reveals that this vacant property is in a depreciated form that needs to be considered for protection and there is an urgent need to formulate an appropriate adaptive reuse plan for this structure and many others.

Volume No. 29

Issue No. XXIX

ANCIENT PAKISTAN
Volume XXIX – 2018

Editor
Ibrahim Shah, PhD

 

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