Journal of Science and Technology

1) APPRAISAL OF FLOOD MITIGATION PRACTICIES IN TIMERGARA CITY DISTRICT DIR LOWER, PAKISTAN
Author(s):AMIR NAWAZ KHAN, SHAH NAWAZ KHAN, MUHAMMAD TAYYAB

Abstract :

Flood mitigation involves the managing and controlling of flood water movement such as redirecting flood runoff through the utilization of flood protecting walls or retaining walls rather than trying to prevent floods altogether. This study is an attempt to evaluate flood mitigation practices in Timargara city. The capacities of relevant organizations and local communities regarding flood mitigation was worst before flood 2010 in the study area. This study aims, to analyze different sectors/Non-Government Organization (NGOs) involved in flood mitigation practices, their roleand responsibilities, and to explore traditional methods practiced for flood mitigation. To achieve objectives of the study a descriptive survey method was adopted for collection of data while sampling and sample size was selected through purposive sampling. At stage one Government departments were targeted which includes, Agriculture Department, Communication and Works Department (C&W), Irrigation Department, Soil Conservation Department, Civil Defiance Department, District Disaster Management Unit (DDMU), Health Department]. At stage two relevant Non Government Organizations (NGOs) including MERLIN, Inter Cooperation (IC), and Pakistan Red Crescent Society (PRCS). Analysis revealed that majority of the Government and Non Government Organizations have inadequate capacities for flood hazards. Local government also need flood forecasting system for flood warning dissemination. Lack of funds and trained ma
2) NEW CHECKLIST OF FRESHWATER FISHES OF DISTRICT BUNER, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
Author(s):ZAIGHAM HASAN, MUHAMMAD SHUAIB, MUNEER AHMAD KHAN, WISAL KHAN, MUHAMMAD NAEEM,

Abstract :

The present survey was conducted to identify the Ichthyofauna of River Barandu, District Buner from November 2012 to October 2013. A total of 13 fish species were collected belonging to 4 orders, 5 families and 10 genera. The richest family of the fish was Cyprinidae represented by 8 species viz. Bariliuspakistanicus, Crossocheilusdiplocheilus,Crossocheiluslatius, Garagotyla, Puntiussophore,Puntiusticto, Schizothoraxplagiostomus andTor macrolepis. Schisturapunjabensisand Triplophysanazirifrom familyNemacheilidae, Mastacembelusarmatusfrom family Mastacembelidae, ChannagachuafromfamilyChannidaeandGlyptothoraxpunjabensis fromfamilySisoridae were also collected from the river. A very important observation is the absence of exotic fishes from the river. The most important contribution of the present study is that it adds two (2) new records from District Buner namely Crossocheilusdiplocheilus and Puntiusticto.
3) CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION TO FLOW OF SWAT RIVER, GLACIERS AND PERMAFROST IN HINDUKUSH RANGES, SWAT DISTRICT, PAKISTAN (2004-2013)
Author(s):SAIFULLAH KHAN, MAHMOOD-UL-HASAN , AMIR NAWAZ KHAN, SAID QASIM

Abstract :

This work aims at the climate change impacts and adaptation to surface flow of Swat River, glacier resources and permafrost in Swat river catchments area, Hindu Kush ranges, Northwest Pakistan. Two types of climate that is humid and undifferentiated highlands prevail in the area. The total precipitation recorded has been 41.8inches (1061.7mm) with mean monthly precipitation of 3.5inches (88.9mm) having a decrease of -0.1inch (-2.8mm). The area has been stoutly humid during 2004 and currently at the threshold of the sub-humid climates (20-40inches). Kalam valley experiences cold long winters (7 months) and short warm summers (5 months). The mean temperature reveals an increase of 0.90C, maximum temperature 0.40C and mean minimum temperature 0.50C. This increased in the temperature of the area have caused water stress and retreat of glaciers and affected the permafrost condition. The annual flow of the Swat river is 192.2 cubic m/sec with a decline of -0.03 cubic m/sec from 2003 to 2013. The annual trend of water flow is directly proportional to precipitation and contrary to maximum temperature during 2003 to 2012 and shows converse condition till 2013. The decrease in the flow during summer is -0.3 cubic m/sec, while in winter there is increase of 0.2 cubic m/sec. The glaciers and snow covered area during 2000 has decreased upto 50% in 2010 and most of the glaciers have recoiled into Utror and Ushu rivers. In 2003, there were 12 dry and 68 active lakes in the area that changed
4) ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF BEEF AND MUTTON AND IMPORTANCE OF THEIR NUTRITIONAL VALUES
Author(s):FARHAT-UN NISA SHEHZAD, ZAHIN ANJUM, SAMIA AKHTER,

Abstract :

The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of cow meat and mutton available in different markets of Peshawar. Samples were analyzed for Protein, fat, ash, and moisture (Proximate), heavy metals (copper, lead, and nickel) and electrolytes (calcium, sodium, and magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium). There were insignificant difference between moisture, fat, and ash level of cow and mutton meat. But the protein level was significant difference. Moisture, protein, fat and ash content of the cow meat averaged 60.649.%, 20.691.8%, 1.600.2%, and 1.110.3%, respectively while moisture, protein, fat, and ash content of the cow meat averaged 78.981.8%, 25.841.5%, 1.150.6%, and 1.120.12%, respectively. Heavy metal analysis revealed that cow meat contained higher level of copper, zinc and nickel as compared to mutton meat. There is an insignificant difference between calcium, potassium and magnesium and significant difference exist between sodium and phosphorous.

Volume No. 38

Issue No. 2

Vol. 38 No. 2