Mapping Trends of Violence in Peshawar: A Study of Selected Police Stations


Authors: Imran Ahmad Sajid & Muhammad Kamran

Mapping Trends of Violence in Peshawar: A Study of Selected Police Stations

Abstract

This paper presents the trends of violence in Peshawar district in Khyber Paktunkhwa province of Pakistan based on police reported cases. The data was collected from the First Information Reports (FIRs) of five (5) selected police stations of Peshawar including Gulbahar, Faqirabad, Yakkatoot, Mathra and Town police stations respectively. For this purpose, past three months FIRs were scanned for relevant data. A total of 1421 FIRs were scanned. A scanning schedule was developed with pre-coding. All the FIRs were converted to relevant Scanning Schedule forms. The data, then, was put into MS Excel Spread Sheets. The data reveals that most of the drug crimes occur in Gulbahar and Yakkatoot police station jurisdictions, a densely populated urban area. Highest frequency of murder cases was reported in Mathra police station jurisdiction, a sparsely populated rural area, while highest frequency of attempted murder was recorded in Yakkatoot police station jurisdiction, again a densely populated urban area. This study recommends online geographical visual imaging of crime data.

Keywords: Violence, Police Stations, First Information Report (FIR), Peshawar, Trends, Peshawar

Introduction

This paper presents the trends of violence in Peshawar based upon police reported cases. Police—law-enforcement to be more precise—is the first agency to respond in the face of crime. When a crime is committed, whether violent or non-violent, either it is reported directly to the law-enforcement or the law-enforcement itself finds out the fact. Maintaining record of all the offences is one of the essential components of every law-enforcement agency. Crime data is recorded, compiled, categorized and analyzed throughout the world. Under the Police Rules of 1934, the police in Pakistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, maintain the record in twenty six (26) registers (Police Rules, 1934, Chapter XXII, Police Station). The criminal records are kept in the following registers:

  1. Register I: FIR Register
  2. Register II: Station Diary
  3. Register VII: Cattle Pound Register (2 parts)
  4. Register VIII: Criminal Tribes Register (2 parts)
  5. Register IX: Village Crime Register (5 parts)

Besides these, there are at least two confidential registers as well. A brief look at the police station record maintenance reveals that it has a comprehensive record registers system. All this data goes to the District Police Officer (DPO) at district level and thereupon moves to Additional Inspector General (IG) Investigation, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the provincial level (Abbas, 2011). However, this bulk of data usually remains unfurnished, unrefined and unreported to public. In the US, all the crime data is published annually under the Uniform Crime Report document (Maltz, 1999). In Japan, the National Police Agency also publishes annual crime statistics (Crime in Japan, 2010). In Pakistan, it is highly difficult to analyze the raw data compiled by the police for crime trends and tendencies or any other meaningful purpose. Nonetheless, the importance of this valuable data cannot be denied as it can be used for research purposes. The present study aimed at analyzing this raw data of the police for some meaningful analysis.

 

Objectives and methodology

Objectives

This research was designed to analyze the existing trends in crime and violence in different localities of Peshawar district.

Methodology

A performa was developed to collect data on crime and violence from the police stations existing registers for the past three (3) months (July, August, September 2016). The collected data was transferred to MS Excel Spread Sheets. It was analysed through SPSS.

Nature of data and sample area

The study is a mix-method research (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004). It mixes archival with ethnographic data. For this research, the archival data was collected from the First Information Reports (FIRs) of the selected police stations of Peshawar district. The detail of police stations is given in Table 1:

 

Table 1: Sample Police Stations

S.No.

Police Station Name

Locality

1.

Gulbahar

Downtown

2.

Faqirabad

Suburban

3.

Yakatoot

Downtown

4.

University Town

Urban

5.

Mathra

Rural

 

 

The ethnographic data was collected by visiting and observing these localities. It is pertinent to mention that Peshawar is the native town of the researcher of this study.

 

Ethical considerations

This research project was carried out with the permission of relevant authorities. Further, the following ethical codes were observed:

  • The researcher would not use any name of offender and/or victims
  • The researcher would not use the name of officer dealing with the cases
  • The researcher would not use the name of witnesses, if any.
  • The researcher would not be judgmental about any case (i.e. the researcher will not pass personal judgments).

Data collection procedure

This research project intended to collect crime data from the First Information Reports (FIRs) of the selected police stations for past three months (August, September, and October 2016). For collecting the primary data, a form was designed (see in attachment). The first task of this research was to obtain the police First Information Reports (FIRs) from the respective police stations. It is pertinent to mention here that police is known as a rigid department in Pakistan when it comes to information sharing (Khan and Prince, 2003). It proved to be one of the most time consuming aspect of this research as well. Nonetheless, the researcher used all formal means to gain access to police data.

In order to collect FIRs from the respective police stations, a letter was sent to Secretary Home and Tribal Affairs department through the Chairman, Department of Social Work, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. The honourbale Secretary forwarded the letter to Deputy Secretary Police, who then forwarded it to Section Officer Police, who forwarded it to the Provincial Police Officer.

The Provincial Police Officer marked the letter to his Additional Inspector General Police (Investigation), who marked it to the Senior Superintendent of Police (Investigation) at the Central Police Office. The SSP (Investigation) at CPO Peshawar marked the letter to the Chief Capital City Police Officer (CCP) who marked it to the SSP (Operations). The SSP Operations marked the letter to respective Superintendents of Police (SPs) including SP City, SP Cantt, and SP Rural.

Each SP marked the letter to one of the DSPs who then would mark the letter to the concerned Station House Officer (SHO). It was finally the Moharrir of the respective police station who would allow us to have the respective FIRs photocopied (See Graph 1 A&B for a visual view of the procedure). In order to get the FIRs registers photocopied, the concerned Moharrir (clerk) would hand over the FIRs register to one of his subordinates who would accompany the Data Enumerator to a photocopy-shop, sometimes miles away from the police station..

Each FIR was converted to Form-D.  A total of 1431 FIRs were photocopied and then converted to the Forms. All the forms were entered into MS Excel Spread Sheet.

 

Graph 1: Data Collection Procedure

Imran Violence

Results and data analysis

Area profiles

The target areas are the following police stations and their jurisdiction: (1) Police Station Gulbahar, (2) Police Station Faqirabad, (3) Police Station Yakatoot, (4) Police Station University Town, and (5) Police Station Mathra.

Gulbahar police station

Gulbahar Police Station is situated in East Peshawar covering mainly the urban district. It covers areas such as Gulbahar, Lahore Bus Terminal, Canal Road, Chaman Park, Daewoo Bus Terminal, Ganj Gate, parts of Haji Camp, parts of Ring Road Peshawar etc.

The population in Gulbahar police station jurisdiction mainly consists of Hindko speaking citizens of Peshawar with parts of Mohmands, Afghans, and Afridis. However, areas such as GT Road near Bus Terminals consists of populations from all over Pakhtunkwha with rapid transition. It is the area from where commercial busses enters and exits from and to Peshawar for all over Pakistan.

Yakkatoot police station

Yakkatoot Police Station is covers the Western Peshawar City. It is mainly urban police station with parts of rural areas. It covers areas such as Yakkatoot, Barha Khwar, Darra Road, Science College, Darakhshan Colony, Garhi Agha Mohmand, Ghafoorabad, Guldara Chowk, Hafizabad, Haideri Pump, Hazarkhwani, Jaba Sohailabad, Khamosh Colony, Khan Mast Colony, and parts of Ring Road Peshawar etc.

The population in Yakkatoot police station jurisdiction mainly consists of Hindko speaking people living in ancient walled city. However, some areas are covered by Mohmands and Khalils. Hazarkhwani is a purely Pakhtoon area.

Faqirabad police station

Faqirabad police station covers Northern Peshawar city district. It mainly covers new urban area. It covers areas such as Faqirabad, Charsadda Road, Charsadda Bus Stop, parts of Dalazak Road, Dinbahar Colony, Afghan Colony, Iqbal Plaza, Nawazabad, and parts of Ring Road, etc.

Population in Faqirbabad police station jurisdiction mainly consists of early migrants to Peshawar. The population is dominant by Urdu speaking people migrated from India and other Pakhtoon tribes including Afghan citizens.

 

Mathra police station

Mathra police station covers North Western Peshawar district. It covers rural area including areas such as Mathra, Ashiqabad, Aminabad, Ali Town, Chalghozi Baba, Teerai, Daud Gharhi, Faqeer Kaly, Fazalabad, Ghamkhadi Colony, Darmangi, Shagai Hindkiyan, Sufaid Sung, etc.

The population in Mathra police station jurisdiction mainly consists of homogeneous Khalil pakhtoons.

Town police station

Town police station covers Western Peshawar city district. It covers mostly new urban and suburban Peshawar. It covers areas such as University Town, Board bazaar, University Road, Canal Road University town, Arbab Road, Custom House, etc.

The population in Town police station jurisdiction is heterogeneous and mainly consists of new affluent migrants to Peshawar with parts of Khalil pakhtoon population. 

 

Definitional issues

After collecting the FIRs from the police, it was necessary to refine the data. Not all FIRs were of criminal nature. It was needed to define what crimes shall fall under violent crimes and what shall be put under other umbrellas. All the crimes that involved a bodily harm were put under the heading ‘violent crimes’ (Holmes & Holmes, 2008). It involves murder or attempted murder, abduction, crimes involving gunshots, battery, assault, crimes involving injury, threats and intimidation, kidnapping, quarrels (fights), rape, robbery, sexual harassment, street fights, possession of unlicensed weapons.

Besides violent crimes, other crimes were placed under following categories: victimless crime, crimes involving no identified victim; property crime, crimes involving damage or harm to property (Meier & Geis, 1997); monetary crime, crimes involving financial matters, such as non-repayment of debt (Wennerlind, 2004); offenderless crime, crimes in which there is no offender other then the victim himself/herself, such as road blockage, protest, adultery (Punch, 1995); traffic crime, crime involving traffic (Junger, West,  & Timman, 2001); unidentified offender crime, crime in which offender is not known or nominated (Canter, 2000); and white collar crime, crimes involving business and government enterprise, such as banking crimes (Sutherland & Geis, 1949).

Crime data analysis

This section presents major findings from the police station FIRs data.

Table 1: Police Station-wise Crime Categories

Crime Categories

Faqir Abad

Gulbahar

Mathra

Town

Yakka toot

Grand Total

Crime against Person

13

11

41

20

39

124

Crime against Person and Property

-

-

1

1

-

2

Monetry Crime

-

2

-

-

-

2

Offenderless Crime

-

-

-

-

2

2

Property Crime

11

15

3

15

6

50

Public Order Crime

8

-

-

2

6

16

Traffic Crime involving Victim

-

-

-

-

9

9

Traffic Crime involving Victims

-

3

-

-

-

3

Unidentified Offender Crime

-

-

4

-

-

4

Victimless Crime

142

398

176

200

288

1204

White Collar Crime

3

-

-

10

-

13

Grand Total

177

429

225

248

350

1429

 

As per Table 1, majority of the crimes were registered in Gulbahar and Yakkatoot police stations while other police stations had a lower share. It might be owing to the fact that Gulabahar and Yakkatoot are purely urban centers with a significant population.

Further, most of the crimes registered were Victimless Crimes, i.e. crimes that have no specified victim other than the society as a whole or the state. The second major crime category was crime against person or the violent crimes. Other categories include property crimes and public order crimes.

Table 2: Types of Crime

S#

Crime Type

F

S#

Crime Type

F

1

Abduction

6

26

Insufficient Security

4

2

Adultery

10

27

Insufficient Security

8

3

Airial Firing

13

28

Intimidation

8

4

Assault and Battery

1

29

Intimidation Government Official

1

5

Attempted Murder

23

30

Kidnapping

5

6

Banking Crime

18

31

Land Dispute fight

1

7

Battery

5

32

Larceny

25

8

Burglary

6

33

Loud speaker Crime

8

9

Burglary and Battery

1

34

Motor Vehicle Theft

9

10

Car Accident

4

35

Murder

16

11

Criminal Suspects

4

36

Non-registration of House

76

12

Damaging Public Property

1

37

Office Fight

1

13

Drug Crime

418

38

Rape

3

14

Firing in Eid

1

39

Restaurant Crime

1

15

Firing in Wedding

6

40

Road Blockage in Protest

12

16

Firing on House

1

41

Robbery

26

17

Firing on Vehicle

1

42

Sexual Harassment

1

18

Forgery

4

43

Shoplifting

1

19

Foreigner without Passport

157

44

Street Fight

5

20

Fraud

2

45

Street Fight with Guns

1

21

Gambling

2

46

Suicide Attempt

3

22

Injured through Bullet

1

47

Traffic Crime

216

23

Injured through Identified Bullet

5

48

Unlicensed Weapon Crime

292

24

Injured through Sharp weapon

2

49

Unregistered Vehicle

3

25

Injured through Unidentified Bullet

2

50

White Collar Crime

1

GRAND TOTAL

1421

 

Table 2 shows a more detailed analysis of types of crime taking place in Peshawar. Majority of the crimes are drug crimes (418/1421) followed by possession of unlicensed weapon (292/1421), traffic crimes (216/1421) and Afghan citizens without passport (157/1421).

In category of violent crime, the following list is included:

Abduction, kidnapping, Assault, battery, aerial firing, Attempted murder, murder, firing in Eid, firing in wedding, firing on house, firing on vehicle, injured through bullet, injured through sharp weapon, intimidation, land dispute fight, office fight, rape, road blockage in protest, robbery, sexual harassment, street fight with or without guns, and suicide attempts. A quick sum of all the listed violent acts reveal that there were 150/1421 violent acts in the past three months in these five selected police stations. Mostly, the violent crimes occurred in Mathra and Yakkatoot police station jurisdictions.

There were 10 adultery cases in the study period. Mostly the incident of adultery/prostitution happen in urban areas of Faqirabad (4/10) and Gulbahar (3/10). No such incident was recorded in Mathra.

Likewise, there were 11 case of kidnapping or abduction, majority recorded in Town Police station (4/11). Burglary, Larceny and Robbery were mostly recorded in Gulbahar, Town, and Town police stations. Drug Crimes mostly took place in Gulbahar and Yakkatoot police station jurisdictions, purely urban regions.

Conclusion and the way forward

This research was designed to analyze the existing trends in crime and violence in different localities of Peshawar district. The data looked into nature of offenses committed, i.e. whether offenses are committed in individuality or in groups? What was the mode of offense (if any), and what were the intentions behind crime commission?

By looking for the data on these three variables in Peshawar, this project intended to highlight the hotspots of violence in Peshawar. Further, it also intended to highlight the causes or intentions behind these offenses along with finding out whether crimes are committed in groups or in individual capacity.

This data is of immense utility for police and all those working on violence in Peshawar. The lessons learned through this project can then be generalized to other projects of the same nature in other localities in Pakistan.

The present data, if analysed on some visual mapping tools, may result in identification of hotspots of various crimes with accurate locations.

 

References

Abbas, H. (2011). Reforming Pakistan‘s Police and Law Enforcement Infrastructure. US Institute of Peace, Washington, DC.

Canter, D. (2000). Offender profiling and criminal differentiation. Legal and Criminological Psychology5(1), 23-46.

Crime in Japan. (2010). Crime in Japan 2010. Police Policy Research Center. National Police Academy. Retrieved July 12, 2016 from http://www.npa.go.jp/english/seisaku/Crime_in_Japan_in_2010.pdf

Holmes, R. M., and Holmes, S. T. (2008). Profiling violent crimes: An investigative tool. London: Sage Publications.

Johnson, R. B., and Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational researcher33(7), 14-26.

Junger, M., West, R., and Timman, R. (2001). Crime and risky behavior in traffic: An example of cross-situational consistency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency38(4), 439-459.

Khan, M. M., and Prince, M. (2003). Beyond rates: the tragedy of suicide in Pakistan. Tropical Doctor33(2), 67-69.

Maltz, M.D. (1999). Bridging Gaps in Police Crime Data. New York: Diane Publishing.

Meier, R. F., and Geis, G. (1997). Victimless Crime?: Prostitution, drugs, homosexuality, abortion. New York: Roxbury Publishers.

Police Rules of Pakistan, 1934, Chapter XXII, Police Station. Lahore: Imran Law Books.

Punch, M. (1995). (gbh) Grievous business harm: Exploring corporate violence. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research3(2), 92-105.

Sutherland, E. H., & Geis, G. (1949). White collar crime (p. 9). New York: Dryden Press.

Wennerlind, C. (2004). The death penalty as monetary policy: the practice and punishment of monetary crime, 1690-1830. History of political economy36(1), 131-161.

 

About the author(s)

Imran Ahmad Sajid is a PhD in Social Work. He is currently working as a Lecturer at the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Peshawar. He remained Managing Editor of Pakistan Journal of Criminology for five years (2010-2015). He is also the Managing Editor of Pakistan Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies. He can be reached at imranahmad131@upesh.edu.pk

Muhammad Kamran is a PhD research scholar at the Department of Social Work, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. He can be reached at smkami2002@yahoo.com