Effectiveness of UN Guiding Principles in Securing Health Assistance to IDPs in Pakistan


Authors: Irfan ud Din, Asad Ullah & Intikhab Alam

Effectiveness of UN guiding principles in securing health assistance to IDPs in Pakistan

Abstract

The current study aimed at assessing effectiveness of UN guiding principles for IDPs in securing health assistance to them. A  sample  size  of  234  respondents  was  selected  through  lottery method of simple random  sampling  to ascertain respondent’s attitudes towards phenomena  under investigation through Likert scale as measurement tool.Chi square test was used to ascertain the association among variables. The study found a significant association of health related protection gap with national authorities provides protection to IDPs in camp (P=0.000), security threats cope with proper mechanism (P=0.000), equity of right (P=0.000), free treatment (P=0.000), essential services and sanitation (P=0.000), adequate facilities for mother and child health (P=0.000), adequate living facilities (P=0.000) and education facilities (P=0.000).Development of IDP camp by keeping in view the international guiding principles for refugee protection and demands of local culture for reducing miseries and worries of IDPs were the major recommendations in light of study.

Keywords:  Guiding principles for IDPs, health related protection gap, internally displaced persons

Introduction

 

It is calculated that in Globe nearly two-third people are displaced, unwillingly drawn out inside their own land. The term internally displaced people (IDP) is used for them. At present in 2012, on global level 28.8 millions IDPs were found since 2011. This most recent number was displayed by the Geneva-based Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC).  In 1997 IDPs have gone up 17 million approximately on Global level. It is found that 15.5 million of IDPs was looking after by the UN refugee agency by the end of 2012; in addition collective numbers of Refugee belong to UNHCR. Due to violation of human right and global level of violence, IDPs were thwarted by conflict similar to refugees (IDMC, 2012).    

According to IDMC statement 6.5 million displaced people recently added while 28.8 million displaced were civilian recorded, nearly a lot of 3.5 million counted a year earlier. An about half settlement were the root cause of the warfare in Syria and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), among 2.4 million and one million each, while a calculated number both in Sudan and India 500,000 number of people left their own home (UNHCR, 2010).

Red Cross (and some non-government organization) defines Internally displaced persons (IDPs) as: “persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border” (Cohen & Deng, 1998 and Red Cross, 2000).

In Pakistan, the military operation launched against terrorists in 2009 compelled a huge number of IDPs to leave their land. It is quite an astonishing reality that as Pakistan had to host the world’s biggest misplaced population in recent times, the additional four millions migrated Afghanis made the situation worse and the state was completely failed to cope with situations both strategically and of achievement of goals . Pakistan has even failed in imposition of leading doctrine by the UN on IDPs through local legislation (HRCP, 2010).

The prerequisites that would force displacement can affect the individuals and community health due to the situation. Warfare, dislocation and other negligence of human rights in addition to the deficiency of access to enough shelter, hygienic condition, drinking water and food, utensils and necessary blankets can earnestly weaken people’s ability to stop and react to health related hazards in their situation (Farris, 2009).       

 During displacement and upon coming back to occupy their own land internally displaced persons (IDPs) faced different types of hazards both to their health and better living. Bodily violence, combined with poverty and limitations, shortage of food, water and worse conditions of sanitation can be the cause of death, disease, wound, paralyzed and trauma. In populated camp environment disease, that earlier have been controlled such as measles, diarrhea, malaria and severe respiratory infection can also become dangerous main epidemics through dislocation. IDPs quality of life and capability to maintain livelihood can also reduce chronic situation like, arthritis, high blood pressure, diabetes, tuberculosis and HIV (IASC, 2006).                      

Because of absence of universal backing, both in law and limit and sick readiness of state to ensure the over-burden of IDPs, the outcome is immense enduring confrontation by internally displaced People. In such sorts of circumstances, IDPs generally depend on their financial status and social cash flow to choose whether to go to IDPs camps or take asylum somewhere else. Late proof recommends that in numerous removal circumstances in KP, Pakistan, the wealthiest IDPs fled to significant urban areas, including urban areas outside the contention territory; the more defenceless were displaced inside their regions of starting point or to neighbouring rustic ranges; and the most helpless went to camps (FDMA, 2013).

The most significant contrasts in worldwide law with respect to the human rights of IDPs and refugee is that the recent are ensured by Convention identifying with the Status of Refugees (CSR) (OHCHR, 1951), while IDPs infer their human rights assurance from UN guiding principles (GPs). Outcast's human rights are expertly planned and advanced by the workplace of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), procuring them need in the law and in institutional assurance. Then again guiding principles are not secured by any UN foundation and subsequently get less agreeability universally (Goodwin-Gill & McAdam, 1996). These guiding principles are essentially drawn from global human rights and humanitarian law. While human rights procurements are excessively general in nature and are intended to be generally connected, those connected to helpful law are intended to cover more particular needs emerging in furnished clashes and are all the more directly applicable to internal displacement. In such situations where human law is insufficient human rights law turns into the main source of legitimate assurance for IDPs since certain human rights, for example, the privilege to life and the preclusion of savage treatment are not fair under any circumstances (Phuong, 2004).

In spite the way that fundamental procurements of humane law addresses the needs and human privileges of war victimized people independent of their limit intersection; still it is utilized as a part of an approach to supports the individuals who (refugee's) crosses national boundary. During worldwide armed conflict it provided additional widespread protection for refugee, while the law managing internal armed conflict is less expand and gives less profit to IDPs.(Goldman, 1998).

Despite the fact that the quantity of IDPs in 1980's emerged to 10 million as a consequence of armed conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa; it was in 1991 when the need of a different law concerning IDPs was figured out. This delay was brought on by numerous UN organizations and international organization. In this respect, global panel of the Red Cross, who is the authoritarian body of Humanitarian law, was of the worry that current human law is sufficiently proficient to care for IDPs during armed conflict and there is no compelling reason to devise a different law for IDPs as it may undermine the current displaced person security framework (Phuong, 2004).

Consequently, affected by numerous UN and international humanitarian actor, Guiding Principles on IDPs were defined as opposed to detailing a binding law. These international standards take an extremely wide way to internal displacement taking into account a general comprehension of the importance of insurance for the internally displaced people. It covers a wide scope of human rights and all periods of uprooting. The accentuation is put on the assurance of uncommon gatherings, strikingly ladies and youngsters, who speak to the symbolize larger part of internally displaced persons (Kalin, 2008).

The international standards have unquestionably brought issues to light of the IDPs, sharpened universal group and verbalized their specific needs. That is the reason, keeping in view the significance of these rules on IDPs assurance. African Union has presented first tying law for IDPs security termed as Kampala insurance planned in 2009 that was authorized on sixth December 2012 and it is sanctioned by fifteen African nations (Rae, 2011).

Despite the fact that the Guiding Principles address most parts of the issue of internal displacement, a few issues are specified too quickly or not at all. Minorities are frequently the first focuses of mistreatment and, subsequently, the first populaces to be internal displacement. Instances of forcible displacement minority gatherings are so various. It would be impossible to be referred it here. Nonetheless, minorities are just said once in the entire report, in Principle 9, where they are alluded together with workers and pastoralists. An alternate procurement contained in Principle 6(2)(a) disallowing 'ethnic purging' in a roundabout way addresses the issue, yet more particular and stronger procurements could have been incorporated (Kalin, 2008).

The issue of safe ranges is not said at all in the Guiding Principles and thus, it frustrates flexibility of development inside nation and right to refugee in the event of IDPs. The most huge shortcoming of the guiding principles (GPs) should be that as it may, is that it is a non-tying instrument. Subsequently, helpfulness of GP is extremely constrained where states and international humanitarian actor performing artists are not lawfully bound to regard them (Phuong, 2004).

The United Nations 'Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement' are a progression of 30 standards identifying with the insurance from relocation; protection during displacement; helpful aid; and the return, resettlement and reintegration of IDPs. Guideline 19 particularly addresses the procurement of suitable health consideration, expressing (Thomas and L Thomas, 2004).

All injured and ill internally displaced persons and additionally those with handicaps might get without bounds degree practicable and with the slightest possible postponement, the medical care and consideration they require, without qualification on any grounds other than medical ones. At the point when vital, inside relocated persons should have entry to mental and social administrations. Exceptional consideration ought to be paid to the health needs of ladies, including access to female health awareness suppliers and services, for example, conceptive social insurance, and proper guiding for casualties of sexual and different misuses. Exceptional consideration ought to be likewise be given to the counteractive action of infectious and irresistible maladies, including AIDS, among internally displaced persons (Kim ,Tobray & Lawry 2007).

Without a general tying law, expresses that had endorsed adherence to the human rights assurance are mindful to take care of IDPs (Clapham, 2006). In any case, actually when states have sanctioned key human rights arrangements, the privileges of the individual can't be guaranteed. For instance, IDPs in Colombia have persevered through many years of human rights violation regardless of the way that state has ratified key human rights settlements and laws (Mooney, 2005)..    

Methodolgy

Universe of study:

The study was conducted in IDPs Bakka khel camp established in Banuu district. The camp was inhabited by 900 IDPs families, displaced from various part of insurgency effected area.

Research design

Present study, based on time horizon, was a cross sectional study which is also called “one short” study. It helps to get in our all picture prevailing at the time of study. This design suitable for determination of existing phenomena, problem or attitude by taking of cross section of population (Babie, 1989).

Sample size and sampling:

For a population of 900 IDPs a sample size of 234 respondents suffices (Sekaran, 2003). List of all households residing in the camp was obtained from camp administration. The sample was drawn from the population by using lottery method of simple random sampling. Primary data was collected at household level from the household heads.

 

Tools of data collection:

A conceptual framework (Table-1) comprising of one independent variable (UN Guiding Principle for IDPs) and dependent variable (health related protection gap) was devised. Interview schedule was used as a tool for data collection with face to face interview method as a procedure. The interview schedule was pretested in the field and corrected for the shortfalls. A list of questions/attitudinal statements was pooled from existing literature to measure the variables at hand. These questions were vetted by a team of experts in the field and three level Likert scales were constructed to measure both variables. Questions related to above variables were translated into local vernacular and asked accordingly from the selected respondents.

Table 1: Conceptual framework

Independent variable                                                 Dependent variable

UN guiding principles for IDPs                                 Health related protection gap

 

Analysis of data: SPSS 20 software was used for the analysis of data. The uni-variate and bi variate approaches were applied.

Uni-variate analysis: Univariate analysis was used for percentage proportion of background, independent and dependent variables along with frequency distribution of respondents. Following equation was used for data class’s percentage.

Data class’s percentage=f/N*100

Where,

f=Data class’s frequency

N=total observations.

Bi-variate analysis:  Bi-variate analysis was applied to estimate the relationship between dependent and independent variables. Chi square test was used to test the strength and direction of association of variables at bi-variate level.

Chi-Square test

 The Chi-square test was used to test the relationship between the two variables. Following statistical technique was adopted to find the value of chi-square test (chudhry and kamal 1977).

c²         =

            Where

c²         = Chi-square for two categorical variables

Oij          = the observed frequencies in the cross-classified category at ith row and jth column

Eij          = the expected frequency for the same category, assuming no association between variables under investigation

The formula simply directs one to take squared summation of the frequencies for each cell, divided by the expected frequency. The resulting frequency is distributed as chi-square with relevant degree of freedom. The degree of freedom is calculated as follows;

df                     =          (r-1) (c-1)

Where

Df                    =          Degree of freedom

r                       =          the number of rows

c                      =          the number of columns

There are some conditions for Chi-Square test which are given below.

1. The subjects for each group are randomly and independently selected.

2. Each observation must qualify for one and only one category.

3. Sample size must fairly be large such that no expected frequency

is less than 5, for r and c > 2 or < 10 if r=c=2.

The variable of health related protection gap was measured by taking attitudinal response of respondents on 12 item likert scale. Reliability test (Cronebach’s alpha test) for the 12 items was run to test the internal consistency and connectivity of scale items. Alpha value came out to be 0.781 which showed that the items used for measurement of health related protection gap are internally consistent and the scale can be reliably used to measurement of variable at hand. The dependent variable (health related protection gap), therefore, was indexed to reach to a summary attitude towards health related protection gap. The respondents that were deprived on half of more items of the scale were rated as they don’t have health related protection. Subsequently, both independent and dependent variables were cross tabulated to measure their association. As the data was collected on three level likert scale, a sub category of ordinal scale, for which Chi-square test is appropriate for testing the association among variables at bi-variate level, as outlined by Tai (1978) at bi-variate level was used.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Frequency and percentage distribution regarding implementation guiding principles

Perception of respondents regarding implementation of guiding principles in IDPs camp is given in Table 2. A big chunk (55.1%) respondent agreed that national authorities provide protection to IDPs in their camps, (35.9 %) disagreed and 9.0 % were uncertain. Similarly 75.2% respondents perceived that security threats are coped with in IDPs camp through proper mechanism, while 17.9% respondents disagreed and 6.8% were not sure regarding security threats in IDPs camp. In addition 76.5% respondents disagreed that they enjoy equity of right in IDPs camp and 15.4% agreed, while 8.1% were not sure. These results are supported by Thomas & Thomas (2004). They viewed that the United Nations 'Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement' are a progression of 30 standards identifying with the insurance from relocation protection during displacement helpful aid and the return, resettlement and reintegration of IDPs. Guideline 19 particularly addresses the procurement of suitable health consideration, expressing.

Table 2: Frequencies and Percentage Distribution of Respondents regarding        implementation of guiding principles for IDPs (N=234)

S.No

Questions

Agree

Disagree

No response

1

National authorities provide protection to IDPs in their camp

129(55.1)

84(35.9)

21(9.0)

 

2

Security threats are coped in IDPs camp through proper mechanism

176(75.2)

42(17.9)

16(6.8)

 

3

You enjoy ,equity of  rights in IDPs camp                                                    

36(15.4)

179(76.5)

19(8.1)

4

You are provided free treatment in IDPs camp

41(17.5)

173(73.9)

20(8.5)

5

There are adequate living facilities in IDPs camp

36(15.3)

182(77.8)

16(6.8)

6

Govt and Non Govt Organization provide the essential services and sanitation

38(16.2)

176(75.2)

20(8.5)

 

7

There are adequate facilities for mother and child health care in IDPs camp

34(14.5)

185(79.5)

25(10.6)

8

Educational facilities is available in IDPs camp

39(16.7)

175(74.8)

20(8.5)

 

On the other hand (73.9%) respondents disagreed that they were not provided free treatment in IDPs camp, while 17.5% agreed that they were provided free treatment in IDPs camp, and 8.5% were not sure. Similarly, (77.8%) respondents viewed that there were no adequate living facilities in IDPs camp, and 15.3% negated it, while 6.8% were uncertain. These results are supported by Roberet et al (2009), they found that During the displacement risks related to health are often and on assisted by a lack of, or low access to health facilities as well as medicine and services and supply. In so many situations satisfactory health care cannot avail by IDPs on timely. Similarly, majority (75.2%) respondents disagreed that essential services and sanitation were not provided by Govt and Non Govt Organization, and 16.2% agreed while 8.5% were uncertain that Govt and Non govt organization provide the essential services and sanitation. This result is supported by Weinstock et al (2003), they found that in IDPs camp the health dangers result from the states of poor sanitation, absence of clean water and congestion that normally describe IDP camps and settlements. Pandemics like cholera and tuberculosis regularly emerge. By and large, an absence of access to satisfactory medical services compounds the health circumstance of numerous IDPs. The injury of uprooting additionally represents a high predominance of psychosocial issues among IDPs.

In analyzing adequate facilities for mother and child health care in IDPs camp (79.5%) respondents did not agree that there were no adequate facilities for mother and child health care, while 14.5% agreed and 10.6% were not sure. This result is supported by WHO (2002), who found that most elaborated indicators for judging the health status of a population is death rate, a group of people with low death rate can be deemed healthy. A large number of IDPs died due to normally treatable illness. It is because they have no proper access to health related facilities. Moreover the death rate of women and children is very high in IDPs camp. Infant children of both sexes have suffered from ordinary cold weather and asphyxia in IDPs camp. Moreover 74.8% respondents disagreed that educational facilities were not available in IDPs camp, while 16.7% agreed and 8.5% were answerless. This result is supported by UNHCR (2009), who found that numerous  kids  of  IDP  families  did not go to schools  with  neighbourhood  youngsters,  which might have contributed to isolation as it was harder for them to create union and foundational social capital with the non-displaced.

It is summarized that competent authorities are responsible to provided humanitarian aid and medical care in the light of guiding principles designed by UN. Govt provided security through appropriate method in IDPs camp. However satisfactory living and health facilities were not available in IDPs camp. Govt and Non govt organization were not provided proper educational facilities for children in IDPs camp.

Association between implementation of guiding principles for IDPs and health related protection gap

Guiding principles are international standard for internally displaced persons. The guiding principles seek to protect all internally displaced persons in internal conflict situations, natural disaster, forced displacement and other situation. They provide protection against arbitrary displacement; offer a basis for protection and assistance during displacement as well as during return and resettlement. These principles reflect and are consistent with international human rights and humanitarian law analogues refugee law. To ascertain the association between guiding principles and health related protection gap the perception of guiding principles was limited and few statements as given in Table 3.

Association between national authorities provides protection to IDPs in camp and health related protection gap was highly significant (P=0.000). The result explores that wherever govt authorities provided a better protection for IDPs the state of health related protection gap is better.  Similarly a high significant (P=0.000) association was found between with threats are coping with in proper mechanism and health related protection gap. In IDP camp, the people are directly exposed to open environment and face tremendous threats. Those that feel insecure are also prone to health related protection gap. This result is supported by Thomas and Thomas (2004).  They viewed that the United Nations 'Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement' are a progression of 30 standards identifying with the insurance from relocation; protection during displacement helpful aid and the return, resettlement and reintegration of IDPs. Guideline 19 particularly addresses the procurement of suitable health consideration.

Table 3: (N=234) Association between Implementation of guiding principles for IDPs and health related protection gap

Implementation of guiding principles for IDPs

Perception

Health related protection gap

Total

Chi-Square

(P-Value)

Agree

 

Disagree

 

No response

National authorities provide protection to IDPs in their camp

Agree

39(16.7)

89(38.0)

1(0.4)

129(55.1)

c2=93.024 (0.000)

Disagree

24(10.3)

57(24.4)

3(1.3)

84(35.9)

No response

1(0.4)

8(3.4)

12(5.1)

21(9.0)

Security threats are coped in IDPs camp through proper mechanism

Agree

38(16.2)

138(59.0)

0(0.00)

176(75.2)

c2=182.870 (0.000)

Disagree

26(11.1)

11(4.7)

2(0.9)

39(16.7)

No response

0(0.00)

5(2.1)

14(6.0)

19(8.1)

You enjoy ,equity of  rights in IDPs camp                                                  

Agree

23(9.8)

8(3.4)

5(2.1)

36(15.4)

c2=126.818 (0.000)

 

Disagree

39(16.7)

140(59.8)

0(0.00)

179(76.5)

No response

2(0.9)

6(2.6)

11(4.7)

19(8.1)

You are provided free treatment in IDPs camp

Agree

27(11.5)

9(3.8)

5(2.1)

41(17.5)

c2=129.020

(0.000)

Disagree

35(15.0)

138(59.0)

0(0.00)

173(73.9)

No response

2(0.9)

7(3.0)

11(4.7)

20(8.5)

There are adequate living facilities in IDPs camp

Agree

24(10.3)

5(2.1)

4(1.7)

33(14.1)

c2=153.254

(0.000)

Disagree

39(16.7)

143(61.1)

0(0.00)

182(77.8)

No response

1(0.4)

6(2.6)

12(5.1)

19(8.1)

Govt and Non Govt Organization provide the essential services and sanitation

Agree

28(12.0)

7(3.0)

3(1.3)

38(16.2)

c2=170.446

(0.000)

Disagree

35(15.0)

141(60.3)

0(0.00)

176(75.2)

No response

1(0.4)

6(2.6)

13(5.6)

20(8.5)

There are adequate facilities for mother and child health care in IDPs camp

Agree

24(10.3)

7(3.0)

3(1.3)

34(14.5)

c2=159.761

(0.000)

Disagree

38(16.2)

142(60.7)

0(0.00)

180(76.9)

No response

2(0.9)

5(2.1)

13(5.6)

20(8.5)

Educational facilities is available in IDPs camp

Agree

27(11.5)

9(3.8)

3(1.3)

39(16.7)

c2=162.210

(0.000)

Disagree

36(15.4)

139(59.4)

0(0.00)

175(74.8)

No response

1(0.4)

6(2.6)

13(5.6)

20(8.5)

 

*Number in table represent frequencies and number in parenthesis represent percentage proportion of respondents.

Likewise, a highly significant (P=0.000) association was found between equity of right and health related protection gap. The result describes that although state has given the protection for IDPs, but they were not fully enjoying the equity of right.  Therefore most were deprived from health facilities too. In addition a highly significant (P=0.000) relationship was found between free treatment and health related protection gap. It indicates that initial days during the displacement, the Govt provided the free treatment for IDPs in camp, but with the passage of time this facility diminished day by day. This result is supported by Roberet et al (2009). They found that during the displacement risks related to health are often and on assisted by a lack of or low access to health facilities as well as medicine and services and supply. In so many situations satisfactory health care cannot avail by IDPs timely.

Similarly a highly significant (P=0.000) association between essential services and sanitation and health related protection gap was established.  This result shows that in IDPs camp health condition wasted due to poor sanitation.  As a result different types of diseases arise in camp. This result is supported by IASC (2006), During displacement and upon coming back to occupy their own land internally displaced persons (IDPs) faced different types of hazards both to their health and better living. Bodily violence, combined with poverty and limitations, shortage of food, water and worse condition of sanitation can be the cause of death, disease, wound, paralyzed and trauma. In populated camp environment disease that earlier have been controlled such as measles, diarrhea, malaria and severe respiratory infection can also become dangerous, main epidemics through dislocation. IDPs quality of life and capability to maintain livelihood can also reduce chronic situation like, arthritis, high blood pressure, diabetes, tuberculosis and HIV.

Likewise, a highly significant (P=0.000) relationship was found between adequate facilities for mother and child health and health related protection gap. It reveals that sufficient health services for mother and child were not provided. In result health of both mother and child were affected. Similarly a highly significant (P=0.000) association was found between adequate living facilities and health related protection gap. This result is supported by WHO (2002). Which found that most elaborated indicators for judging the health status of a population is death rate. A group of people with low death rate can be deemed healthy. A large number of IDPs died due to normally treatable illness. It is because they have no proper access to health related facilities. Moreover the death rate of women and children is very high in IDPs camp. Infant children of both sexes have suffered from ordinary cold weather and asphyxia in IDPs camp. Furthermore a highly significant (P= 0.000) association was found between education facilities and health related protection gap. The education facilities were very limited in IDPs camp. Most of children did not attend to school. This result is supported by UNHCR (2009). Which found that numerous  kids  of  IDP  families  did not  go to  schools  with  neighbourhood  youngsters.  Thus, this contributed to isolation as it was harder for them to create union and foundational social capital with the non-displaced.

The results ascertain that state provide the protection and security in IDPs camp, under the guiding principles for IDPs. However other life facilities like living facilities, health and education are scare and not distributed under the principles of equity. Therefore diseases, mortality and health related protection gap is high.  

Conclusion and Recommendations

The  main  conclusion  of  this  study  highlighted  the  inadequacy  and  inappropriateness  of  health services provided to IDPs camp in Banuu. The health services for most of health problems were absolutely missing and not tailored according to the age and sex needs of the IDPs. This study found out that the burden of mental health problems was almost equal to the physical health problems among IDPs. The frequency of health services provision was not regular and resulted in huge levels of morbidity and mortality. Although the state provided the protection and security in IDPs camp, under the guiding principles for IDPs. However, other life facilities like living facilities, health and education were scare and not distributed under the principles of equity. Therefore diseases, mortality and health related protection gap was high.  

Development of IDP camp by keeping in view the international guiding principles for refugee protection and demands of local culture for reducing miseries and worries of IDPs. The cultural norm of purdah and prestige in tribal society should be incorporated in building small shelter homes to protect their self esteem instead of keeping them in tents.

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About the Authors

Irfan ud Din is an M.Phil scholar at the Department of Rural Sociology, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar– Pakistan. He can be reached at irfan@aup.edu.pk  

Asad Ullah is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Rural Sociology, the University of Agriculture of Peshawar-Pakistan. He can be reached at asadpsh@aup.edu.pk

Intikhab Alam is a PhD in Rural Sociology. He is also working as Lecturer at the Department of Rural Sociology, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar – Pakistan. He can be reached at intikhab@aup.edu.pk