Analysis of Socio-Economic Problems of Temporarily Dislocated People in Jalozai Camp District Nowshehra, Pakistan
Authors: Shah Nawaz Khan & Zeeshan Nawaz
Analysis of Socio-Economic Problems of Temporarily Dislocated People in Jalozai Camp District Nowshehra, Pakistan
Temporarily displaced person (TDP) is someone, who is forced to escape his/her home but remains within the country's border. It is difficult to get accurate figures for TDPs in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa(KP) in Pakistan because their population is constantly fluctuating as some are fleeing and others are returning back to their homes while some may come to camps for humanitarian help. This research is an attempt to analyze socio-economic problems of temporarily displaced people in Jalozai camp district Nowshehra in KP. The study is focused on various social and economic problems of the temporarily displaced people, which they were facing in Jalozai camp. This is a mixed method research which adopted focused group discussion and survey research designs. A questionnaire was designed distributed amongst 50 respondents. Major findings of the study indicate that temporarily displaced people face multi problems in Jalozai camp. These TDPs are facing problems including shortage of food and tents, access to clean drinking water while hygiene is another issue in the camp. Approximately 40,000 children were living in Jalozai camp and majority of TDPs families have not enrolled their children in schools. The security issue in TDPs’ camp is also an issue of concern. Different national and international NGOs and the government of KP are working in the camp to facilitate TDPs by providing basic necessities of life including basic health facilities, education, clean drinking water, appropriate security and protection inside the camp.
Temporarily displaced people (TDPs) are among the world’s most vulnerable people. Unlike refugees, TDPs do not cross an international border to find sanctuary but remain inside their home countries. TDPs legally remain under the protection of their own government – even though that government might be the cause of their flight. As citizens of the state, they retain all of their rights and protection under both Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and international humanitarian law (Mooney, 2005). According to UNHCR (2007), more than 42 million individuals around the world are presently displaced by conflict. Out of these, 16 million are refugees and more than 26 million are displaced within their own country’s border (Okyayuz & Angliss, 2014).
At the end of 2011, there were an estimated 26.4 million internally displaced people around the world. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was helping about 15.5 million of the TDPs in 26 countries. These included the three countries with the largest TDP populations – Colombia, Iraq and South Sudan (Minter, 2011). Millions of other civilians who have been made homeless by natural disasters are also considered as TDPs. In 2011, some 14.9 million people became internally displaced due to natural disasters, the great majority of them across Asia (Borton, and Otto 2005).
The population of north-west Pakistan has suffered conflict-induced displacement for the past seven years, with the phenomenon reaching its peak in 2009 when there were more than three million internally displaced people (TDP’S) in the region. By May 2010, the figure was down to one million but moved upward in the following years. As of May 2010, military operations and militant activities were causing new ongoing displacements in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in 2011(Chaudhry, 2014).
Migration has both economic and social aspects (Black, 2001). Social problems generally affect the whole society and defined the problems of particular area of the world. These problems arise across the globe but in certain areas these occurs morefrequently (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988).An economic problem is sometimes called as central or basic problem, which asserts that there are limited resources available to fulfill all human needs and wants. The economic problems are due to two reasons: firstly unlimited human wants, and secondly scarcity of resources to fulfill these wants (Sandler 1997). Social problems include poverty, corruption, illiteracy, health issues, unemployment and child labor while economic problems include rising prices, unemployment, declining export, power crises, lack of tourism, tumbling stock market and loss of business (Lauer & Lauer, 1998).
Different societies have different social and economic problems. In Pakistan thousands of people are displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province. Individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods (Chaudhry, 2014). These were accomodated in different camps in different districts. Jalozai camp in district Nowshera is one of the largest camps in the region.
Over the last decade, Pakistan has experienced large-scale involuntary internal displacement caused by a range of factors. The year 2010 was the second consecutive year since the Afghan refugee crisis began in 1979 that the number of temporarily displaced people in Pakistan exceeded that of registered refugees i.e. 1.2 million(Din, 2010). The main cause for internal displacement in the spring of 2009 was military operations against militants in Malakand region of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, leading to a displacement (not exodus) of about 2.3 million people in a little over a fortnight and creating one of the largest displacement crises in recent times.
Military offensives against militants in the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) bordering Afghanistan also contributed considerably to involuntary displacement, pushing the number of temporarily displaced people to 2.7 million between April and July 2009, the largest internal displacement of population in the country's history until then. Large-scale displacement occurred in Pakistan in August and September, 2010 when the worst flooding in the history of the country covered an area equal to the size of England,affecting20 million people, forcing over 7 million people from their homes ( Khan S., 2014).
Jalozai camp is located 35 kilometers in south east of Peshawar. This camp used to be the largest camp in Pakistan and Asia for refugees (Taha and Aamir, 2012). When military operation was started in Bara Agency on 12th of March 2012, TDP’S started to move into Jalozai camp. Thousands of families migrated and started living in the camp. About 12,900 families shifted to Jalozai camp, majority of these families belong to Khyber agency while some families are from Bajur agency. Around 55,850 people belonging to Khyber Agency still live there. Previously, it was populated by the refugees from Swat, Bajur and Mohmand Agencies (Tribune, 2013). There are Six Phases in Jalozai Camp. Temporary markets are present at the entrance of camp. Free medical facilities are provided in 7 Basic Health Units (BHUs). NGOs also arrange free medical camps frequently. Educational needs are fulfilled through 17 schools, including 6 for boys and 6 for girls and one high school. There are 4 non-vocational schools operating under the support program of UNICEF (Tribune, 2012). TDP’S of Jalozai camp are facing many problems regarding shelter, food, health, education, and security etc(Chaudhry, 2014).
Material and Method
This Research report is based on the qualitative data and supported by quantitative figures. The data is collected in June 2014- October 2014.The Data obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The Primary source considered as the most appropriate tool for collecting data necessary for the study. Primary data collected directly from TDPs settled in Jalozai camp through the semi-structured interviews; focus group discussions; and direct observation. A questionnaire was designed for collecting the primary data. A total number of respondents were 50. The data was processed through a database in MS Excel and represented in the form of graphs and narrations.
Results and Discussion
This research study was conducted under the title socio-economic problems of temporarily displaced people in Jalozai camp district Nowshehra. The study was focused on various social and economic problems of the temporarily displaced people which they are facing in Jalozai camp.
Figure 1: Age wise distribution of the respondents
Figure 1 represents age of the respondents. As per the graph, 20 respondents were in age group 18-30 years, 16 were in age group 31-45 years, and 10 were in age group 40-60 years while 4 were above 60 years.
Figure 2: Gender wise distribution of the respondents;
Figure two shows the gender of the respondents. According to eh figure, 48 respondents were males, and 2 were females.
Figure 3: Respondents split by marital status
Figure 3 shows the marital status of the respondents. As per the figure, 72% of the respondents were married while 28% unmarried.
Figure 4: Socio economic problems of the respondents;
Figure 4 represents socio economic problems of the respondents, highest number of individuals i.e. (96%) were facing different electricity problems including accidents due to darkness, risk of theft and shortage of water, followed by (92%) who were facing registration problems including long queue, few numbers of registration points and non cooperative staff. Similarly (84%) and (80%) individuals were having environmental problems and problems during summer season including diseases, foul smell, pollution, direct sun heat and unavailability of cold water respectively. Sanitation problem, health problem and problems during winter season including stagnant water, foul smell, diseases, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, seasonal diseases, mental problems unavailability of blankets and unavailability of warm water were faced by (76%) individuals each. Water problems including low number of water supply lines and long queue were faced by (64%) individuals, (56%) individuals do not celebrate different events mainly due to financial problems. Similarly (54%) individuals were facing food problems including low quality of food and its unorganized distribution, educational problems including lack of schools & teachers and transport problems including high transport fare and remote location of camp were facing by (52%) individuals each. Shelter problems including low number of tents and high number of family members were the problem of (36%) individuals and security problems was faced by (28%) individuals, while only (20%) of individuals were facing protection problems. Causes and reasons of these problems are explained in next section.
Figure 5: Registration problems
Figure 5 represents different causes of registration problems in which 22.2 % respondents declare long queue as a major cause of registration problem. Some respondents i.e. 11% and 11.1% represent few numbers of registration points and non cooperative staff as the main causes of registration problems. Majority of the respondents’ i.e.55.5% declare all the three mentioned problems as the causes of registration problem.
Figure 6: Frequencies of types of security available in the camp;
Figure 6 represents frequencies of different types of security available in the camp.Majority individuals i.e. 42% said that police force provide security to the camp, 17%respondents saw the protective fence as security measures while 19% also found other security measures. There were only 22% of the respondents who observed all the mentioned security measures in the camp.
Figure 7: Frequencies of different sanitation problems in the camp
Figure 7 represents frequencies of different sanitation problems in the camp where 26.3% individuals said that stagnant water is one of the sanitation problem, only 5.3% individuals declare foul smell as a sanitation problem while 21% individuals declare different diseases as major problems of sanitation. Majority of the individuals i.e. 47.4% opted all the mentioned options as sanitation problems.
Figure 8: Frequencies of different common health problem in the camp
Figure 8 represents frequencies of different common health problem in the camp where majority individuals i.e. 47.4% said that bacterial diseases are one of the common diseases in camp, 15.8 % individual each said that viral diseases and mental problems are common in the camp, 21% individuals opted seasonal diseases as common health problem in the camp.
Figure 9: Frequencies of different shelter problems in the camp;
Figure 9 represents frequencies of different shelter problems in the camp where 16.7% individuals said that low number of tents is one of the cause regarding shelter problem, 27.8% individual said that high number of family members in one tent is the cause of this problems, while majority of individuals i.e. 55.5% said that both the options i.e. low number of tents and high number of family members in single tent are the causes of shelter problem in the camp.
Figure 10: Frequencies of different problems regarding electricity in the camp
Figure 10 represents frequencies of different problems regarding electricity in the camp where majority of individuals i.e. 41.7% said that shortage of water is the major problem regarding electricity, 12.5 % individuals said that risk of theft is problem regarding electricity, while only 4.2% individuals said that accidents occurs due to darkness which is a main problem regarding electricity in the camp.
Figure 11: Frequencies of different environmental problems in the camp
Figure 11 represents 23.8% individuals said that congested area is one of the cause of environmental problem in the camp, in which 14.3% individual said that poor sanitation is the cause of environmental problem in the camp, and only 9.5% individuals opted poor hygiene, while majority of the individuals i.e. 52.4% opted all the above mentioned three option as causes of environmental problem in the camp.
Figure 12: Frequencies of different educational problems in the camp
Figure 12 represents frequencies of different causes of educational problems in the camp, where 28.6% individuals said that lack of schools is one of the cause of educational problem in the camp, only 7.1% individuals said that lack of teachers is the cause of educational problem in the camp, and 14.3% individuals opted accessibility problem, while 50% individuals opted all the above mentioned three option as causes of educational problem in the camp.
Figure 13: Frequencies of different food problems in the camp
Figure 13 represents frequencies of different causes of food problems in the camp where 25.9% individuals said that long queue is one of the cause of food problem in the camp, 22.2% individuals said that low quality of food is the cause of food problem in the camp and only 7.4% individuals opted disorganized distribution of food, while majority of individuals i.e. 44.4% opted all the above mentioned three option as causes of food problem in the camp.
Figure 14: Frequencies of the water problem
Figure 14 represents frequencies of causes of water problem where 21.9% respondents declared low number of water supply line in the camp as one of the cause of water problem, 25% and 15.6% individuals said that long queue and irregular supply of water are the causes of transport problem respectively while majority of the respondents i.e. 37.5% said that all the above mentioned causes are responsible for generating water problem in the camp.
The respondents were temporarily displaced people who were living in Jalozai camp established by the government.The respondents faced different problems regarding health, education, security, protection, water, electricity, sanitation and food problems in most of the cases.Haphazard evacuation of homes caused anxiety, fear, anger and many other psychological problems in majority of the respondents.Every displaced person had sustained losses of assets left in the home town during displacement and was remained jobless for a long period of time.Large families were living in a single tent which had disturbed the privacy of family members.In the camp most of the respondents have Pardah problem as thousands of TDP’S were living in a congested manner in the same camp. Majority of the problems in Jalozai camp weredue to the unsatisfactory performance of government organizations (GOs) and non government organizations (NGOs).In short the respondents declared displacement and life in camp as a worst experience of their lives.
Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA) had registered the families in Jalozai camp who were displaced due to ongoing security forces operation against the militants and provides all the facilities, including that for health and education.
PDMA Chief Coordinating Officer told us that Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (KP) government was initially reluctant to issue funds, but after insistence it finally gave in. He added that every tent had electric supply and families had been given pedestal fans.
World Food Programme, United Nations High Commission for Refugees, World Health Organization and local NGOs working as partners also arrange free medical camps frequently. Medical staff ensures the immunization of children, specifically against polio. Educational needs are fulfilled. Fourother non-vocational schools are operating under the support program of UNICEF.In collaboration with the World Food Programme, the Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA), KP, has planned to provide compensation money.
It is suggested that after displacement the displaced persons should be camped in highly facilitated camps having all the basic necessities of life including basic health facilities, educational, clean drinking water, appropriate security and protection inside the camps. Registration staff should be professional and they should be made co-operative.Health, educational and recreational facilities should be provided to the displaced persons in different camps established by the government at in line with international refugee and humanitarian law.
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About the authors
Shah Nawaz Khan is a Lecturer at the Centre for Disaster Preparedness and Management, University of Peshawar. He can be reached at email@example.com
Zeeshan Nawaz is a research student at the Centre for Disaster Preparedness and Management, University of Peshawar. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org